## subtitle content

# | start | duration | content |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2s 02ms | 3s 03ms | ` >> Earth, a 4.5 billion year old ` |

2 | 5s 05ms | 4s 04ms | ` Planet, still evolving. ` |

3 | 9s 09ms | 2s 02ms | ` As continents shift and clash, ` |

4 | 12s 012ms | 3s 03ms | ` volcanoes erupt, glaciers grow ` |

5 | 15s 015ms | 2s 02ms | ` and recede, the Earth's crust is ` |

6 | 18s 018ms | 1s 01ms | ` carved in countless, fascinating ` |

7 | 20s 020ms | 2s 02ms | ` ways, leaving a trail of ` |

8 | 22s 022ms | 4s 04ms | ` geological mysteries behind. ` |

9 | 26s 026ms | 3s 03ms | ` This is the story of Hawaii, a ` |

10 | 29s 029ms | 1s 01ms | ` mountain chain over 80 million ` |

11 | 31s 031ms | 1s 01ms | ` years old and home to the ` |

12 | 33s 033ms | 1s 01ms | ` most active volcano in the ` |

13 | 35s 035ms | 3s 03ms | ` world. ` |

14 | 38s 038ms | 1s 01ms | ` In this exquisite, volatile ` |

15 | 40s 040ms | 1s 01ms | ` landscape, scientists hunt for ` |

16 | 41s 041ms | 1s 01ms | ` clues to the islands' ` |

17 | 43s 043ms | 3s 03ms | ` origins - clues that may shed ` |

18 | 46s 046ms | 2s 02ms | ` new light on the formation of ` |

19 | 48s 048ms | 4s 04ms | ```
the Earth itself.
S01x12 <font color="#ffff00">Hawaii</font>
Original Air Date on May 5, 2009
``` |

20 | 52s 052ms | 4s 04ms | ```
-- Sync, corrected by <font color="#00ff00">elderman</font> --
-- for <font color="#00ffff">addic7ed.com</font> --
``` |

21 | 56s 056ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii. The most isolated group ` |

22 | 58s 058ms | 2s 02ms | ` of islands on Earth, stretching ` |

23 | 0mn 1s 11ms | 2s 02ms | ` 1,500 miles across the middle of ` |

24 | 0mn 3s 13ms | 2s 02ms | ` the Pacific Ocean. ` |

25 | 0mn 6s 16ms | 1s 01ms | ` These eight tropical islands are ` |

26 | 0mn 7s 17ms | 1s 01ms | ` one of the youngest geological ` |

27 | 0mn 9s 19ms | 2s 02ms | ` formations on the planet. ` |

28 | 0mn 12s 112ms | 2s 02ms | ` With stunning beaches, huge ` |

29 | 0mn 14s 114ms | 2s 02ms | ` canyons and the biggest ` |

30 | 0mn 16s 116ms | 3s 03ms | ` volcanoes on Earth, this is ` |

31 | 0mn 20s 120ms | 5s 05ms | ` where paradise meets hell. ` |

32 | 0mn 26s 126ms | 1s 01ms | ` The investigation into how ` |

33 | 0mn 28s 128ms | 3s 03ms | ` Hawaii was formed began in 1934. ` |

34 | 0mn 31s 131ms | 2s 02ms | ` Dutch geophysicist Felix Meinesz ` |

35 | 0mn 34s 134ms | 1s 01ms | ` invented the gravimeter, an ` |

36 | 0mn 36s 136ms | 1s 01ms | ` incredible machine which enabled ` |

37 | 0mn 38s 138ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists to accurately measure ` |

38 | 0mn 39s 139ms | 4s 04ms | ` gravity for the first time. ` |

39 | 0mn 43s 143ms | 1s 01ms | ` With his cutting-edge ` |

40 | 0mn 45s 145ms | 1s 01ms | ` technology, Meinesz was able to ` |

41 | 0mn 46s 146ms | 1s 01ms | ` calculate the gravitational ` |

42 | 0mn 48s 148ms | 2s 02ms | ` forces at work on the Big Island ` |

43 | 0mn 50s 150ms | 1s 01ms | ` and, using this data, determine ` |

44 | 0mn 51s 151ms | 3s 03ms | ` its size. ` |

45 | 0mn 55s 155ms | 1s 01ms | ` His results revealed that the ` |

46 | 0mn 57s 157ms | 1s 01ms | ` Big Island was like a gigantic ` |

47 | 0mn 58s 158ms | 2s 02ms | ` iceberg. Only its tip was ` |

48 | 0mn 0s 20ms | 2s 02ms | ` visible above the ocean. But ` |

49 | 0mn 3s 23ms | 1s 01ms | ` drain away the water and its ` |

50 | 0mn 4s 24ms | 2s 02ms | ` true size is remarkable. The ` |

51 | 0mn 6s 26ms | 1s 01ms | ` island is twice the height of ` |

52 | 0mn 8s 28ms | 1s 01ms | ` Everest, and so massive that ` |

53 | 0mn 9s 29ms | 2s 02ms | ` Everest could fit inside it 140 ` |

54 | 0mn 12s 212ms | 6s 06ms | ` times. ` |

55 | 0mn 19s 219ms | 1s 01ms | ` Geologist Mike Poland heads to ` |

56 | 0mn 21s 221ms | 1s 01ms | ` the top of the mountain Mauna ` |

57 | 0mn 22s 222ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kea, the highest point on the ` |

58 | 0mn 24s 224ms | 1s 01ms | ` Big Island, to get a sense of ` |

59 | 0mn 25s 225ms | 4s 04ms | ` its true enormity. ` |

60 | 0mn 30s 230ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> We're standing at the top of ` |

61 | 0mn 31s 231ms | 2s 02ms | ` Mauna Kea volcano, which is the ` |

62 | 0mn 33s 233ms | 1s 01ms | ` tallest mountain in the world. ` |

63 | 0mn 34s 234ms | 2s 02ms | ` It's 13,796 feet above sea ` |

64 | 0mn 37s 237ms | 2s 02ms | ` level, but it goes all the way ` |

65 | 0mn 39s 239ms | 1s 01ms | ` down to the ocean floor and ` |

66 | 0mn 40s 240ms | 1s 01ms | ` ends up being about 56,000 feet ` |

67 | 0mn 42s 242ms | 2s 02ms | ` high. ` |

68 | 0mn 45s 245ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This giant island is the ` |

69 | 0mn 47s 247ms | 2s 02ms | ` largest in the United States and ` |

70 | 0mn 49s 249ms | 0s 00ms | ` bigger than all the other ` |

71 | 0mn 50s 250ms | 3s 03ms | ` Hawaiian Islands put together. ` |

72 | 0mn 53s 253ms | 2s 02ms | ` Intrigued, scientists set out to ` |

73 | 0mn 55s 255ms | 1s 01ms | ` discover what could have created ` |

74 | 0mn 57s 257ms | 4s 04ms | ` such a huge land mass. ` |

75 | 0mn 2s 32ms | 1s 01ms | ` 10,000 feet below the peak of ` |

76 | 0mn 3s 33ms | 1s 01ms | ` Mauna Kea and 70 miles to the ` |

77 | 0mn 5s 35ms | 2s 02ms | ` south, the prime suspect is ` |

78 | 0mn 8s 38ms | 3s 03ms | ` plain to see - the awesome ` |

79 | 0mn 11s 311ms | 3s 03ms | ` Kilauea volcano. ` |

80 | 0mn 15s 315ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> (Poland) We like to call ` |

81 | 0mn 16s 316ms | 0s 00ms | ` Kilauea the most active volcano ` |

82 | 0mn 17s 317ms | 0s 00ms | ` in the world because it's been ` |

83 | 0mn 18s 318ms | 1s 01ms | ` erupting continuously since ` |

84 | 0mn 19s 319ms | 2s 02ms | ` 1983. And it's been going every ` |

85 | 0mn 21s 321ms | 1s 01ms | ` day, almost nonstop, since that ` |

86 | 0mn 23s 323ms | 3s 03ms | ` time. Since early 2008, it's ` |

87 | 0mn 26s 326ms | 1s 01ms | ` been even more active, 'cause ` |

88 | 0mn 27s 327ms | 0s 00ms | ` now we have this summit ` |

89 | 0mn 28s 328ms | 1s 01ms | ` eruption as well, so now ` |

90 | 0mn 30s 330ms | 2s 02ms | ` Kilauea's perhaps by two times ` |

91 | 0mn 32s 332ms | 1s 01ms | ` the most active volcano in the ` |

92 | 0mn 33s 333ms | 2s 02ms | ` world. ` |

93 | 0mn 36s 336ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> But this volcano is not ` |

94 | 0mn 37s 337ms | 2s 02ms | ` predictable. Although the summit ` |

95 | 0mn 40s 340ms | 2s 02ms | ` is no longer spewing out lava, ` |

96 | 0mn 42s 342ms | 1s 01ms | ` 12 miles down on the south flank ` |

97 | 0mn 44s 344ms | 2s 02ms | ` of the volcano is an active ` |

98 | 0mn 46s 346ms | 6s 06ms | ` vent. ` |

99 | 0mn 52s 352ms | 2s 02ms | ` For the last 25 years, lava has ` |

100 | 0mn 55s 355ms | 1s 01ms | ` been gushing out of the side of ` |

101 | 0mn 57s 357ms | 2s 02ms | ` the volcano from this vent, ` |

102 | 0mn 59s 359ms | 6s 06ms | ` with no signs of stopping. ` |

103 | 0mn 6s 46ms | 2s 02ms | ` Homes, towns and forests are ` |

104 | 0mn 8s 48ms | 1s 01ms | ` swallowed up by scorching hot ` |

105 | 0mn 10s 410ms | 4s 04ms | ` lava. With each new flow, layer ` |

106 | 0mn 15s 415ms | 1s 01ms | ` upon layer of black crust ` |

107 | 0mn 16s 416ms | 1s 01ms | ` builds, covering the island in ` |

108 | 0mn 18s 418ms | 4s 04ms | ` volcanic rock. ` |

109 | 0mn 22s 422ms | 2s 02ms | ` Could this huge island have been ` |

110 | 0mn 25s 425ms | 4s 04ms | ` built entirely by lava? ` |

111 | 0mn 29s 429ms | 1s 01ms | ` Experts needed to figure out ` |

112 | 0mn 30s 430ms | 2s 02ms | ` exactly how much lava Kilauea ` |

113 | 0mn 33s 433ms | 3s 03ms | ` produces. Their first clue can ` |

114 | 0mn 36s 436ms | 2s 02ms | ` be found all over the volcano. ` |

115 | 0mn 39s 439ms | 2s 02ms | ` Clinging to the rocks are yellow ` |

116 | 0mn 41s 441ms | 2s 02ms | ` crystals. These are sulfur ` |

117 | 0mn 44s 444ms | 1s 01ms | ` crystals and tell scntists ` |

118 | 0mn 46s 446ms | 1s 01ms | ` that Kilauea volcano is ` |

119 | 0mn 48s 448ms | 1s 01ms | ` releasing vast amounts of ` |

120 | 0mn 49s 449ms | 3s 03ms | ` sulfur dioxide gas. ` |

121 | 0mn 53s 453ms | 1s 01ms | ` To determine just how much the ` |

122 | 0mn 55s 455ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcano is producing, ` |

123 | 0mn 56s 456ms | 1s 01ms | ` researchers take regular ` |

124 | 0mn 58s 458ms | 2s 02ms | ` measurements. ` |

125 | 0mn 0s 50ms | 2s 02ms | ` >> The amount of sulfur dioxide ` |

126 | 0mn 2s 52ms | 2s 02ms | ` that effervesces from the magma ` |

127 | 0mn 5s 55ms | 1s 01ms | ` is tied directly to the amount ` |

128 | 0mn 7s 57ms | 1s 01ms | ` of magma that's coming out of ` |

129 | 0mn 8s 58ms | 1s 01ms | ` the ground, the amount of lava ` |

130 | 0mn 9s 59ms | 2s 02ms | ` that's erupted. So by measuring ` |

131 | 0mn 11s 511ms | 1s 01ms | ` the amount of sulfur dioxide, ` |

132 | 0mn 13s 513ms | 2s 02ms | ` we can use that number to ` |

133 | 0mn 15s 515ms | 1s 01ms | ` calculate how much lava is being ` |

134 | 0mn 17s 517ms | 2s 02ms | ` erupted. ` |

135 | 0mn 20s 520ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> These samples reveal ` |

136 | 0mn 21s 521ms | 3s 03ms | ` staggering results. ` |

137 | 0mn 25s 525ms | 2s 02ms | ` Kilauea could be producing 100 ` |

138 | 0mn 27s 527ms | 1s 01ms | ` million cubic yards of lava a ` |

139 | 0mn 29s 529ms | 2s 02ms | ` year, more than any volcano on ` |

140 | 0mn 32s 532ms | 2s 02ms | ` Earth. But there isn't this much ` |

141 | 0mn 35s 535ms | 2s 02ms | ` lava flowing across the surface. ` |

142 | 0mn 37s 537ms | 2s 02ms | ` So where does the rest of it go? ` |

143 | 0mn 40s 540ms | 2s 02ms | ` Geologists ventured below the ` |

144 | 0mn 42s 542ms | 1s 01ms | ` surface, into the guts of the ` |

145 | 0mn 44s 544ms | 3s 03ms | ` volcano, to investigate. ` |

146 | 0mn 48s 548ms | 1s 01ms | ` Stretching 400 feet into the ` |

147 | 0mn 49s 549ms | 2s 02ms | ` dark is a strange tunnel, just ` |

148 | 0mn 52s 552ms | 2s 02ms | ` like a subway tunnel. But it's ` |

149 | 0mn 54s 554ms | 2s 02ms | ` not a manmade structure. It's ` |

150 | 0mn 57s 557ms | 2s 02ms | ` part of a vast network of tubes ` |

151 | 0mn 59s 559ms | 1s 01ms | ` that hold the key to how much ` |

152 | 0mn 1s 61ms | 3s 03ms | ` lava moves around the island. ` |

153 | 0mn 5s 65ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> We're standing in Thurston ` |

154 | 0mn 6s 66ms | 1s 01ms | ` lava tube in Hawaii Volcanoes ` |

155 | 0mn 7s 67ms | 1s 01ms | ` National Park, and this lava ` |

156 | 0mn 9s 69ms | 0s 00ms | ` tube was one of the main ` |

157 | 0mn 10s 610ms | 1s 01ms | ` conduits for lava that was ` |

158 | 0mn 12s 612ms | 1s 01ms | ` flowing from Kilauea summit ` |

159 | 0mn 13s 613ms | 1s 01ms | ` to the sea in an eruption that ` |

160 | 0mn 15s 615ms | 2s 02ms | ` occurred about 500 years ago. ` |

161 | 0mn 17s 617ms | 1s 01ms | ` So once this tube system has ` |

162 | 0mn 18s 618ms | 1s 01ms | ` been established, you ` |

163 | 0mn 19s 619ms | 1s 01ms | ` essentially have an underground ` |

164 | 0mn 20s 620ms | 1s 01ms | ` river of lava. So these tube ` |

165 | 0mn 22s 622ms | 1s 01ms | ` systems can be very long-lived ` |

166 | 0mn 24s 624ms | 1s 01ms | ` and very efficient delivery ` |

167 | 0mn 25s 625ms | 3s 03ms | ` systems for lava. ` |

168 | 0mn 29s 629ms | 2s 02ms | ` >> The lava is so hot it burns a ` |

169 | 0mn 31s 631ms | 1s 01ms | ` channel into the rocks beneath ` |

170 | 0mn 32s 632ms | 2s 02ms | ` it. ` |

171 | 0mn 35s 635ms | 1s 01ms | ` This incredible time-lapse ` |

172 | 0mn 37s 637ms | 1s 01ms | ` footage shows that, because the ` |

173 | 0mn 39s 639ms | 1s 01ms | ` top of the flow is still exposed ` |

174 | 0mn 41s 641ms | 2s 02ms | ` to the air, it cools and crusts ` |

175 | 0mn 43s 643ms | 3s 03ms | ` over. Below this crust, a tunnel ` |

176 | 0mn 47s 647ms | 1s 01ms | ` forms, through which the lava ` |

177 | 0mn 48s 648ms | 3s 03ms | ` continues to flow. ` |

178 | 0mn 52s 652ms | 1s 01ms | ` But how much lava can these ` |

179 | 0mn 53s 653ms | 5s 05ms | ` tubes carry? ` |

180 | 0mn 59s 659ms | 1s 01ms | ` Back on the surface, Dr. Ken Hon ` |

181 | 0mn 1s 71ms | 1s 01ms | ` is carefully inspecting the lava ` |

182 | 0mn 2s 72ms | 3s 03ms | ` fields to find an active tube. ` |

183 | 0mn 6s 76ms | 1s 01ms | ` Only inches beneath his feet ` |

184 | 0mn 8s 78ms | 2s 02ms | ` could be a tunnel full of 2,000 ` |

185 | 0mn 10s 710ms | 4s 04ms | ` degree lava. ` |

186 | 0mn 15s 715ms | 1s 01ms | ` Dr. Hon is on the look out for a ` |

187 | 0mn 16s 716ms | 2s 02ms | ` skylight, a window in the ` |

188 | 0mn 19s 719ms | 2s 02ms | ` ceiling of a tube. They can come ` |

189 | 0mn 21s 721ms | 1s 01ms | ` and go within days and are a ` |

190 | 0mn 22s 722ms | 1s 01ms | ` sure sign of an active lava ` |

191 | 0mn 24s 724ms | 1s 01ms | ` tube. ` |

192 | 0mn 25s 725ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> You can see the lava glowing ` |

193 | 0mn 27s 727ms | 2s 02ms | ` inside the lava tube. This one's ` |

194 | 0mn 29s 729ms | 1s 01ms | ` about ten to 15 feet wide and ` |

195 | 0mn 31s 731ms | 1s 01ms | ` probably about five feet deep. ` |

196 | 0mn 33s 733ms | 1s 01ms | ` And it's about 2,000 degrees ` |

197 | 0mn 35s 735ms | 1s 01ms | ` Fahrenheit, and it glows like ` |

198 | 0mn 36s 736ms | 2s 02ms | ` the sun. ` |

199 | 0mn 39s 739ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> These hidden tunnels keep the ` |

200 | 0mn 40s 740ms | 2s 02ms | ` lava insulated and hot, ` |

201 | 0mn 42s 742ms | 1s 01ms | ` preventing it from cooling and ` |

202 | 0mn 44s 744ms | 1s 01ms | ` turning into solid rock, ` |

203 | 0mn 46s 746ms | 1s 01ms | ` enabling it to travel further ` |

204 | 0mn 47s 747ms | 1s 01ms | ` and faster than lava on the ` |

205 | 0mn 49s 749ms | 2s 02ms | ` surface. ` |

206 | 0mn 51s 751ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> What we're looking at is on ` |

207 | 0mn 53s 753ms | 1s 01ms | ` the order of about five cubic ` |

208 | 0mn 55s 755ms | 1s 01ms | ` yards every second going ` |

209 | 0mn 56s 756ms | 2s 02ms | ` in this lava tube underneath us. ` |

210 | 0mn 58s 758ms | 1s 01ms | ` And that's the equivalent of ` |

211 | 0mn 0s 80ms | 1s 01ms | ` about a dump truck worth of lava ` |

212 | 0mn 2s 82ms | 1s 01ms | ` every two seconds, so if I was ` |

213 | 0mn 3s 83ms | 1s 01ms | ` standing on the freeway, what ` |

214 | 0mn 5s 85ms | 1s 01ms | ` you would see is one dump truck ` |

215 | 0mn 6s 86ms | 1s 01ms | ` after another dump truck after ` |

216 | 0mn 7s 87ms | 1s 01ms | ` another dump truck going by me ` |

217 | 0mn 9s 89ms | 1s 01ms | ` here, transporting a phenomenal ` |

218 | 0mn 11s 811ms | 3s 03ms | ` amount of material. ` |

219 | 0mn 14s 814ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Hundreds of these expressways ` |

220 | 0mn 16s 816ms | 1s 01ms | ` crisscross the island, carrying ` |

221 | 0mn 18s 818ms | 2s 02ms | ` lava underground up to 30 miles ` |

222 | 0mn 21s 821ms | 1s 01ms | ` until it reaches its inevitable ` |

223 | 0mn 22s 822ms | 3s 03ms | ` destination... ` |

224 | 0mn 26s 826ms | 15s 015ms | ` the ocean. ` |

225 | 0mn 41s 841ms | 2s 02ms | ` And when 2,000 degree lava meets ` |

226 | 0mn 43s 843ms | 1s 01ms | ` seawater, the results are ` |

227 | 0mn 45s 845ms | 10s 010ms | ` spectacular. ` |

228 | 0mn 55s 855ms | 2s 02ms | ` This interaction is key to how ` |

229 | 0mn 58s 858ms | 1s 01ms | ` the Big Island was created and ` |

230 | 0mn 59s 859ms | 2s 02ms | ` is continually growing. ` |

231 | 0mn 2s 92ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> When the lava hits the ocean, ` |

232 | 0mn 4s 94ms | 3s 03ms | ` it's extremely hot and it ` |

233 | 0mn 7s 97ms | 1s 01ms | ` shatters into lots of little ` |

234 | 0mn 9s 99ms | 1s 01ms | ` pieces, so what it does is leave ` |

235 | 0mn 10s 910ms | 4s 04ms | ` a lot of black sand behind it. ` |

236 | 0mn 15s 915ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Layer upon layer of this ` |

237 | 0mn 16s 916ms | 2s 02ms | ` black sandy rubble slowly piles ` |

238 | 0mn 18s 918ms | 1s 01ms | ` up on the ocean floor until it ` |

239 | 0mn 20s 920ms | 3s 03ms | ` forms a new beach. ` |

240 | 0mn 24s 924ms | 1s 01ms | ` New lava on the surface runs ` |

241 | 0mn 26s 926ms | 1s 01ms | ` across this beach, cooling ` |

242 | 0mn 28s 928ms | 1s 01ms | ` slowly to form a new piece ` |

243 | 0mn 29s 929ms | 1s 01ms | ` of solid land on sandy ` |

244 | 0mn 31s 931ms | 3s 03ms | ` foundations. This massive island ` |

245 | 0mn 35s 935ms | 2s 02ms | ` is built on piles of loose ` |

246 | 0mn 37s 937ms | 1s 01ms | ` rubble. ` |

247 | 0mn 39s 939ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> We're looking right here at ` |

248 | 0mn 40s 940ms | 1s 01ms | ` the process by which the ` |

249 | 0mn 41s 941ms | 3s 03ms | ` Hawaiian Islands grow. ` |

250 | 0mn 45s 945ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The Big Island is the fastest ` |

251 | 0mn 46s 946ms | 1s 01ms | ` growing piece of land on Earth, ` |

252 | 0mn 48s 948ms | 2s 02ms | ` as lava from Kilauea adds 20 ` |

253 | 0mn 50s 950ms | 1s 01ms | ` football fields a year to its ` |

254 | 0mn 52s 952ms | 2s 02ms | ` already colossal size. But this ` |

255 | 0mn 55s 955ms | 2s 02ms | ` just isn't enough. More lava is ` |

256 | 0mn 58s 958ms | 1s 01ms | ` needed to build this huge ` |

257 | 0mn 59s 959ms | 1s 01ms | ` Island, so just where is it ` |

258 | 0mn 1s 101ms | 1s 01ms | ` coming from? The clues are in ` |

259 | 0mn 3s 103ms | 2s 02ms | ` the landscape itself. While ` |

260 | 0mn 5s 105ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kilauea forms only one peak on ` |

261 | 0mn 7s 107ms | 1s 01ms | ` the island, four other ` |

262 | 0mn 8s 108ms | 1s 01ms | ` megastructures tower over the ` |

263 | 0mn 10s 1010ms | 4s 04ms | ` landscape. ` |

264 | 0mn 14s 1014ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Over a million years ago, ` |

265 | 0mn 15s 1015ms | 1s 01ms | ` there was no Big Island of ` |

266 | 0mn 16s 1016ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii. It started as a very ` |

267 | 0mn 18s 1018ms | 1s 01ms | ` small island, which was the ` |

268 | 0mn 20s 1020ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcano of Kohala, which grew ` |

269 | 0mn 21s 1021ms | 1s 01ms | ` out of the ocean. Over time, ` |

270 | 0mn 23s 1023ms | 1s 01ms | ` more volcanoes started to grow, ` |

271 | 0mn 25s 1025ms | 1s 01ms | ` Mauna Kea and Hualalai came ` |

272 | 0mn 26s 1026ms | 1s 01ms | ` next, growing into tremendous ` |

273 | 0mn 28s 1028ms | 1s 01ms | ` Mountains. Mauna Loa was the ` |

274 | 0mn 30s 1030ms | 1s 01ms | ` next volcano to grow. And ` |

275 | 0mn 31s 1031ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kilauea is the youngest of the ` |

276 | 0mn 32s 1032ms | 3s 03ms | ` Big Island's volcanoes. ` |

277 | 0mn 36s 1036ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Over a million years, lava ` |

278 | 0mn 38s 1038ms | 2s 02ms | ` from these five volcanoes slowly ` |

279 | 0mn 40s 1040ms | 1s 01ms | ` built the Big Island up from the ` |

280 | 0mn 42s 1042ms | 2s 02ms | ` sea floor. The biggest island in ` |

281 | 0mn 45s 1045ms | 2s 02ms | ` the United States is one big ` |

282 | 0mn 47s 1047ms | 8s 08ms | ` volcanic rock. ` |

283 | 0mn 56s 1056ms | 1s 01ms | ` The mystery of how Hawaii was ` |

284 | 0mn 58s 1058ms | 2s 02ms | ` made is slowly unraveling as the ` |

285 | 0mn 0s 110ms | 1s 01ms | ` evidence emerges from its fiery ` |

286 | 0mn 1s 111ms | 3s 03ms | ` volcanoes. Experiments in the ` |

287 | 0mn 5s 115ms | 1s 01ms | ` 1930s revealed that the Big ` |

288 | 0mn 7s 117ms | 1s 01ms | ` Island is a vast structure, ` |

289 | 0mn 9s 119ms | 1s 01ms | ` stretching three miles down to ` |

290 | 0mn 11s 1111ms | 2s 02ms | ` the sea floor. Readings of ` |

291 | 0mn 13s 1113ms | 1s 01ms | ` sulfur dioxide gas show that ` |

292 | 0mn 15s 1115ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kilauea produces more lava than ` |

293 | 0mn 17s 1117ms | 3s 03ms | ` any other volcano on Earth. ` |

294 | 0mn 21s 1121ms | 2s 02ms | ` The landscape reveals that lava ` |

295 | 0mn 23s 1123ms | 1s 01ms | ` from five volcanoes built the ` |

296 | 0mn 25s 1125ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island. ` |

297 | 0mn 28s 1128ms | 1s 01ms | ` The Big Island of Hawaii is a ` |

298 | 0mn 30s 1130ms | 1s 01ms | ` stunning wilderness dominated by ` |

299 | 0mn 32s 1132ms | 2s 02ms | ` fire and destruction. But what ` |

300 | 0mn 35s 1135ms | 1s 01ms | ` force on Earth could create the ` |

301 | 0mn 36s 1136ms | 1s 01ms | ` most active volcano in the ` |

302 | 0mn 38s 1138ms | 2s 02ms | ` world, 2,000 miles from the ` |

303 | 0mn 41s 1141ms | 1s 01ms | ` nearest land, in the middle of ` |

304 | 0mn 43s 1143ms | 4s 04ms | ` the Pacific? ` |

305 | 0mn 52s 1152ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii is filled with evidence ` |

306 | 0mn 54s 1154ms | 3s 03ms | ` of a volcanic past. ` |

307 | 0mn 58s 1158ms | 1s 01ms | ` The eight islands are made up ` |

308 | 0mn 59s 1159ms | 3s 03ms | ` of 15 mammoth volcanoes. ` |

309 | 0mn 3s 123ms | 2s 02ms | ` Molokai boasts two huge ` |

310 | 0mn 5s 125ms | 1s 01ms | ` mountains, the Big Island is ` |

311 | 0mn 7s 127ms | 1s 01ms | ` dominated by the giant Mauna ` |

312 | 0mn 8s 128ms | 2s 02ms | ` Loa, and in Honolulu, houses are ` |

313 | 0mn 11s 1211ms | 2s 02ms | ` crowded around the now extinct ` |

314 | 0mn 14s 1214ms | 2s 02ms | ` Diamond Head crater. ` |

315 | 0mn 16s 1216ms | 2s 02ms | ` Geologists had figured out that ` |

316 | 0mn 18s 1218ms | 1s 01ms | ` the Big Island was created by ` |

317 | 0mn 19s 1219ms | 2s 02ms | ` five volcanoes. Next, they ` |

318 | 0mn 22s 1222ms | 1s 01ms | ` wanted to know how the entire ` |

319 | 0mn 24s 1224ms | 5s 05ms | ` chain had come into existence. ` |

320 | 0mn 30s 1230ms | 2s 02ms | ` 7,000 miles away, off the coast ` |

321 | 0mn 32s 1232ms | 1s 01ms | ` of Indonesia, is the mighty ` |

322 | 0mn 34s 1234ms | 6s 06ms | ` Krakatoa. ` |

323 | 0mn 40s 1240ms | 2s 02ms | ` Ever since it exploded in 1883, ` |

324 | 0mn 43s 1243ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists have been trying to ` |

325 | 0mn 44s 1244ms | 1s 01ms | ` understand the forces that ` |

326 | 0mn 46s 1246ms | 4s 04ms | ` create volcanoes. ` |

327 | 0mn 51s 1251ms | 1s 01ms | ` Experts plotted all the active ` |

328 | 0mn 53s 1253ms | 2s 02ms | ` volcanoes in the world on a map, ` |

329 | 0mn 55s 1255ms | 1s 01ms | ` and an extraordinary fact ` |

330 | 0mn 56s 1256ms | 4s 04ms | ` emerged. 80 percent lay around ` |

331 | 0mn 1s 131ms | 2s 02ms | ` the edge of the Pacific Ocean. ` |

332 | 0mn 3s 133ms | 1s 01ms | ` This long line of volcanoes ` |

333 | 0mn 5s 135ms | 1s 01ms | ` became known as the Ring of ` |

334 | 0mn 7s 137ms | 4s 04ms | ` Fire. 452 giant volcanoes make ` |

335 | 0mn 12s 1312ms | 1s 01ms | ` up the ring, and it is thought ` |

336 | 0mn 13s 1313ms | 1s 01ms | ` that eruptions began in this ` |

337 | 0mn 15s 1315ms | 8s 08ms | ` area over 36 million years ago. ` |

338 | 0mn 24s 1324ms | 2s 02ms | ` During the 1950s and '60s, a ` |

339 | 0mn 26s 1326ms | 1s 01ms | ` theory emerged that finally ` |

340 | 0mn 28s 1328ms | 1s 01ms | ` began to make sense of these ` |

341 | 0mn 30s 1330ms | 2s 02ms | ` fire mountains. Geologists ` |

342 | 0mn 32s 1332ms | 1s 01ms | ` realized that the Earth's crust ` |

343 | 0mn 33s 1333ms | 1s 01ms | ` was made up of eight major and ` |

344 | 0mn 35s 1335ms | 1s 01ms | ` many minor plates, fitting ` |

345 | 0mn 37s 1337ms | 1s 01ms | ` together like a giant jigsaw ` |

346 | 0mn 39s 1339ms | 1s 01ms | ` puzzle. ` |

347 | 0mn 40s 1340ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> They move relative to one ` |

348 | 0mn 42s 1342ms | 0s 00ms | ` another, sometimes they ` |

349 | 0mn 43s 1343ms | 1s 01ms | ` intersect, sometimes they ` |

350 | 0mn 44s 1344ms | 2s 02ms | ` diverge. These plate boundaries ` |

351 | 0mn 46s 1346ms | 1s 01ms | ` are where we see most geologic ` |

352 | 0mn 47s 1347ms | 2s 02ms | ` activity. For example, along the ` |

353 | 0mn 50s 1350ms | 1s 01ms | ` Pacific Ring of Fire, where ` |

354 | 0mn 51s 1351ms | 1s 01ms | ` there's lots of volcanoes and ` |

355 | 0mn 53s 1353ms | 2s 02ms | ` earthquakes, that marks plate ` |

356 | 0mn 55s 1355ms | 2s 02ms | ` boundary locations. ` |

357 | 0mn 58s 1358ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The theory was called ` |

358 | 0mn 59s 1359ms | 2s 02ms | ` subduction. When tectonic plates ` |

359 | 0mn 2s 142ms | 1s 01ms | ` collide, the heavier oceanic ` |

360 | 0mn 4s 144ms | 1s 01ms | ` plate is forced down into the ` |

361 | 0mn 5s 145ms | 2s 02ms | ` Earth's intensely hot interior, ` |

362 | 0mn 7s 147ms | 2s 02ms | ` taking water with it. The water ` |

363 | 0mn 10s 1410ms | 1s 01ms | ` forces magma to swirl up and ` |

364 | 0mn 12s 1412ms | 1s 01ms | ` push through the plate, where it ` |

365 | 0mn 13s 1413ms | 4s 04ms | ` forms volcanoes. ` |

366 | 0mn 17s 1417ms | 1s 01ms | ` But when geologists looked at ` |

367 | 0mn 19s 1419ms | 1s 01ms | ` the volcanoes of Hawaii, it was ` |

368 | 0mn 21s 1421ms | 2s 02ms | ` clear the theory didn't fit. ` |

369 | 0mn 23s 1423ms | 1s 01ms | ` They couldn't have been created ` |

370 | 0mn 25s 1425ms | 1s 01ms | ` as the plates collided, because ` |

371 | 0mn 26s 1426ms | 1s 01ms | ` they sit 2,000 miles from the ` |

372 | 0mn 28s 1428ms | 6s 06ms | ` nearest boundary. ` |

373 | 0mn 35s 1435ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Here in Hawaii, we're in the ` |

374 | 0mn 36s 1436ms | 1s 01ms | ` middle of a plate, so we ` |

375 | 0mn 37s 1437ms | 1s 01ms | ` wouldn't expect to see that much ` |

376 | 0mn 38s 1438ms | 1s 01ms | ` activity. That's another bit of ` |

377 | 0mn 40s 1440ms | 1s 01ms | ` evidence that there's got to be ` |

378 | 0mn 41s 1441ms | 1s 01ms | ` some anomaly here that's ` |

379 | 0mn 43s 1443ms | 1s 01ms | ` causing all of the melting we ` |

380 | 0mn 44s 1444ms | 1s 01ms | ` see in the middle of this large ` |

381 | 0mn 45s 1445ms | 2s 02ms | ` plate. ` |

382 | 0mn 48s 1448ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Puzzled, geologists decided ` |

383 | 0mn 50s 1450ms | 1s 01ms | ` to look at the volcanoes of ` |

384 | 0mn 51s 1451ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii in the hope they might ` |

385 | 0mn 52s 1452ms | 1s 01ms | ` give up their secrets. But all ` |

386 | 0mn 54s 1454ms | 1s 01ms | ` they found were more ` |

387 | 0mn 56s 1456ms | 3s 03ms | ` differences. Most of the world's ` |

388 | 0mn 59s 1459ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcanoes are cone-shaped, with ` |

389 | 0mn 0s 150ms | 1s 01ms | ` steep sides many thousands of ` |

390 | 0mn 2s 152ms | 2s 02ms | ` feet tall, but Hawaii's ` |

391 | 0mn 4s 154ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcanoes look completely ` |

392 | 0mn 6s 156ms | 3s 03ms | ` different. ` |

393 | 0mn 9s 159ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> We call these volcanoes ` |

394 | 0mn 11s 1511ms | 1s 01ms | ` shield volcanoes because of ` |

395 | 0mn 12s 1512ms | 1s 01ms | ` their shape. If you're looking ` |

396 | 0mn 14s 1514ms | 1s 01ms | ` behind me at Mauna Loa, it's ` |

397 | 0mn 15s 1515ms | 2s 02ms | ` got these very smooth sloping ` |

398 | 0mn 17s 1517ms | 1s 01ms | ` flanks, it's like a warrior's ` |

399 | 0mn 18s 1518ms | 1s 01ms | ` shield that's been put on its ` |

400 | 0mn 19s 1519ms | 3s 03ms | ` end. ` |

401 | 0mn 23s 1523ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Digging deeper, geologists ` |

402 | 0mn 24s 1524ms | 1s 01ms | ` decided to test the lava and ` |

403 | 0mn 26s 1526ms | 1s 01ms | ` found that Hawaiian volcanoes ` |

404 | 0mn 28s 1528ms | 1s 01ms | ` produce a distinct type of ` |

405 | 0mn 29s 1529ms | 3s 03ms | ` lava called basalt. Basalt lava ` |

406 | 0mn 32s 1532ms | 1s 01ms | ` is made of rocks which have been ` |

407 | 0mn 34s 1534ms | 2s 02ms | ` heated up to 2,000 degrees. ` |

408 | 0mn 36s 1536ms | 1s 01ms | ` Not only is it the hottest lava ` |

409 | 0mn 38s 1538ms | 1s 01ms | ` in the world, it's also some of ` |

410 | 0mn 40s 1540ms | 1s 01ms | ` the most fluid, and this makes ` |

411 | 0mn 41s 1541ms | 3s 03ms | ` it terrifyingly unpredictable. ` |

412 | 0mn 44s 1544ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> (man) We gotta get outta here! ` |

413 | 0mn 46s 1546ms | 2s 02ms | ` Get outta here! ` |

414 | 0mn 49s 1549ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The lava that erupts here in ` |

415 | 0mn 50s 1550ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii is very runny, it's much ` |

416 | 0mn 52s 1552ms | 1s 01ms | ` runnier than the kind of lavas ` |

417 | 0mn 54s 1554ms | 0s 00ms | ` that erupt from places like ` |

418 | 0mn 55s 1555ms | 0s 00ms | ` Mount Rainier or Mount St. ` |

419 | 0mn 56s 1556ms | 2s 02ms | ` Helens, which is much stickier. ` |

420 | 0mn 59s 1559ms | 1s 01ms | ` It's like comparing honey to ` |

421 | 0mn 0s 160ms | 2s 02ms | ` toothpaste. ` |

422 | 0mn 3s 163ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It's this difference in the ` |

423 | 0mn 5s 165ms | 1s 01ms | ` consistency of the lava that ` |

424 | 0mn 6s 166ms | 1s 01ms | ` gives Hawaii's volcanoes their ` |

425 | 0mn 8s 168ms | 2s 02ms | ` dramatically different shape. ` |

426 | 0mn 11s 1611ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The sides of the volcanoes ` |

427 | 0mn 12s 1612ms | 2s 02ms | ` here are gently sloping because ` |

428 | 0mn 14s 1614ms | 1s 01ms | ` those lava flows can just run ` |

429 | 0mn 15s 1615ms | 3s 03ms | ` out as they need to. ` |

430 | 0mn 19s 1619ms | 1s 01ms | ` And the lava flows at places ` |

431 | 0mn 21s 1621ms | 1s 01ms | ` like Mount Rainier and Mount St. ` |

432 | 0mn 22s 1622ms | 1s 01ms | ` Helens, being very sticky, stay ` |

433 | 0mn 24s 1624ms | 0s 00ms | ` close to the volcano and build ` |

434 | 0mn 25s 1625ms | 1s 01ms | ` up very steep-sided volcanic ` |

435 | 0mn 26s 1626ms | 9s 09ms | ` cones. ` |

436 | 0mn 36s 1636ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Geologists had uncovered ` |

437 | 0mn 37s 1637ms | 1s 01ms | ` crucial evidence, but they still ` |

438 | 0mn 39s 1639ms | 1s 01ms | ` did not understand what kind of ` |

439 | 0mn 41s 1641ms | 2s 02ms | ` force could create volcanoes in ` |

440 | 0mn 43s 1643ms | 2s 02ms | ` the middle of a plate 2,000 ` |

441 | 0mn 45s 1645ms | 5s 05ms | ` miles from the nearest boundary. ` |

442 | 0mn 51s 1651ms | 1s 01ms | ` But whatever that force turned ` |

443 | 0mn 52s 1652ms | 1s 01ms | ` out to be, it would have to be ` |

444 | 0mn 54s 1654ms | 2s 02ms | ` enormous. Big enough to quite ` |

445 | 0mn 57s 1657ms | 3s 03ms | ` literally move a mountain. At ` |

446 | 0mn 0s 170ms | 1s 01ms | ` the summit of the Big Island's ` |

447 | 0mn 1s 171ms | 2s 02ms | ` Kilauea volcano, Dr. Mike Poland ` |

448 | 0mn 3s 173ms | 1s 01ms | ` is using sophiicated global ` |

449 | 0mn 5s 175ms | 1s 01ms | ` positioning equipment to measure ` |

450 | 0mn 7s 177ms | 4s 04ms | ` changes in the volcano's size. ` |

451 | 0mn 12s 1712ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> G.P.S. is a tool for locating ` |

452 | 0mn 14s 1714ms | 1s 01ms | ` yourself anywhere on the surface ` |

453 | 0mn 15s 1715ms | 1s 01ms | ` of the Earth. You may be ` |

454 | 0mn 17s 1717ms | 1s 01ms | ` familiar with this from seeing ` |

455 | 0mn 18s 1718ms | 1s 01ms | ` G.P.S. units in cars. This is a ` |

456 | 0mn 19s 1719ms | 1s 01ms | ` different type of G.P.S., it's ` |

457 | 0mn 21s 1721ms | 1s 01ms | ` much more accurate. And that ` |

458 | 0mn 22s 1722ms | 1s 01ms | ` allows us to see how the ground ` |

459 | 0mn 24s 1724ms | 1s 01ms | ` is moving in centimeter-level ` |

460 | 0mn 25s 1725ms | 1s 01ms | ` scales. ` |

461 | 0mn 27s 1727ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This cutting-edge technology ` |

462 | 0mn 29s 1729ms | 1s 01ms | ` is crucial to scientists in ` |

463 | 0mn 30s 1730ms | 1s 01ms | ` their struggle to understand the ` |

464 | 0mn 32s 1732ms | 3s 03ms | ` forces working beneath Hawaii. ` |

465 | 0mn 35s 1735ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> So we've got this G.P.S. ` |

466 | 0mn 36s 1736ms | 1s 01ms | ` setup here, we also have a ` |

467 | 0mn 38s 1738ms | 1s 01ms | ` G.P.S. setup on the far side of ` |

468 | 0mn 40s 1740ms | 1s 01ms | ` the aldera. Now, by looking at ` |

469 | 0mn 41s 1741ms | 1s 01ms | ` how the distance between those ` |

470 | 0mn 43s 1743ms | 1s 01ms | ` G.P.S. stations is changing, we ` |

471 | 0mn 44s 1744ms | 0s 00ms | ` can get an idea of whether or ` |

472 | 0mn 45s 1745ms | 1s 01ms | ` not the volcano is inflating or ` |

473 | 0mn 47s 1747ms | 1s 01ms | ` deflating. If it's inflating ` |

474 | 0mn 49s 1749ms | 1s 01ms | ` like a balloon, it means that ` |

475 | 0mn 50s 1750ms | 0s 00ms | ` there's magma that's ` |

476 | 0mn 51s 1751ms | 0s 00ms | ` accumulating beneath the ` |

477 | 0mn 52s 1752ms | 1s 01ms | ` surface, and if it's deflating, ` |

478 | 0mn 54s 1754ms | 0s 00ms | ` it may mean that there's magma ` |

479 | 0mn 55s 1755ms | 1s 01ms | ` that's leaving the subsurface. ` |

480 | 0mn 57s 1757ms | 1s 01ms | ` And over the past years, ` |

481 | 0mn 58s 1758ms | 1s 01ms | ` actually, these stations have ` |

482 | 0mn 59s 1759ms | 1s 01ms | ` gotten farther apart from one ` |

483 | 0mn 0s 180ms | 2s 02ms | ` another by almost a foot. The ` |

484 | 0mn 2s 182ms | 1s 01ms | ` kind of force necessary to ` |

485 | 0mn 4s 184ms | 1s 01ms | ` inflate the volcano, to spread ` |

486 | 0mn 6s 186ms | 1s 01ms | ` the Caldera wider by one foot, ` |

487 | 0mn 8s 188ms | 1s 01ms | ` is tremendous, and it's a very ` |

488 | 0mn 9s 189ms | 1s 01ms | ` good sign of magmahat's ` |

489 | 0mn 11s 1811ms | 1s 01ms | ` accumulating beneath the surface ` |

490 | 0mn 12s 1812ms | 0s 00ms | ` and may be getting ready to ` |

491 | 0mn 13s 1813ms | 8s 08ms | ` erupt. ` |

492 | 0mn 21s 1821ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Evidence was mounting that a ` |

493 | 0mn 23s 1823ms | 1s 01ms | ` huge and unexplained force was ` |

494 | 0mn 25s 1825ms | 3s 03ms | ` at work beneath the chain. The ` |

495 | 0mn 28s 1828ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcanoes of Hawaii do not ` |

496 | 0mn 29s 1829ms | 1s 01ms | ` emerge from a plate boundary, ` |

497 | 0mn 31s 1831ms | 1s 01ms | ` but rise up right in the middle ` |

498 | 0mn 33s 1833ms | 3s 03ms | ` of the Pacific plate. Hawaii's ` |

499 | 0mn 36s 1836ms | 1s 01ms | ` Lava is dramatically different ` |

500 | 0mn 38s 1838ms | 1s 01ms | ` to that produced by the rest of ` |

501 | 0mn 39s 1839ms | 2s 02ms | ` the volcanoes in the Pacific. ` |

502 | 0mn 42s 1842ms | 1s 01ms | ` The islands of Hawaii were a ` |

503 | 0mn 43s 1843ms | 2s 02ms | ` thorn in the side of geology. ` |

504 | 0mn 46s 1846ms | 1s 01ms | ` But, although they remained an ` |

505 | 0mn 47s 1847ms | 1s 01ms | ` unexplained mystery, geologists ` |

506 | 0mn 49s 1849ms | 2s 02ms | ` weren't about to give up. And ` |

507 | 0mn 52s 1852ms | 1s 01ms | ` the answers they would find were ` |

508 | 0mn 53s 1853ms | 1s 01ms | ` so incredible that the debate ` |

509 | 0mn 55s 1855ms | 2s 02ms | ` they created still rages to this ` |

510 | 0mn 57s 1857ms | 1s 01ms | ` day. ` |

511 | 0mn 2s 192ms | 1s 01ms | ` The puzzle of what created the ` |

512 | 0mn 4s 194ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands of Hawaii seemed ` |

513 | 0mn 5s 195ms | 3s 03ms | ` impossible to solve. ` |

514 | 0mn 9s 199ms | 1s 01ms | ` The mystery only deepened when, ` |

515 | 0mn 11s 1911ms | 2s 02ms | ` in the 1950s, the U.S. Navy ` |

516 | 0mn 13s 1913ms | 1s 01ms | ` mapped the ocean floor with ` |

517 | 0mn 14s 1914ms | 4s 04ms | ` sonar. ` |

518 | 0mn 19s 1919ms | 1s 01ms | ` They revealed a series of ` |

519 | 0mn 20s 1920ms | 1s 01ms | ` underwater mountains, known as ` |

520 | 0mn 22s 1922ms | 1s 01ms | ` Seamounts, that extended far ` |

521 | 0mn 24s 1924ms | 1s 01ms | ` beyond the chain of eight ` |

522 | 0mn 25s 1925ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaiian Islands. ` |

523 | 0mn 28s 1928ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> To the northwest are a whole ` |

524 | 0mn 30s 1930ms | 2s 02ms | ` string of sea mountains we call ` |

525 | 0mn 32s 1932ms | 1s 01ms | ` Seamounts. Those are sunken ` |

526 | 0mn 34s 1934ms | 2s 02ms | ` volcanic mountains, many of them ` |

527 | 0mn 36s 1936ms | 1s 01ms | ` with reefs on top of them. ` |

528 | 0mn 38s 1938ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Over 80 seamounts and 19 ` |

529 | 0mn 40s 1940ms | 1s 01ms | ` islands form this sequence, ` |

530 | 0mn 42s 1942ms | 1s 01ms | ` known as the Hawaiian-Emperor ` |

531 | 0mn 44s 1944ms | 2s 02ms | ` Seamount chain. ` |

532 | 0mn 46s 1946ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> (Blay) You're looking at a ` |

533 | 0mn 47s 1947ms | 1s 01ms | ` total distance from the Big ` |

534 | 0mn 49s 1949ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island of Hawaii out to Midway ` |

535 | 0mn 51s 1951ms | 2s 02ms | ` and all the way up to Russia of ` |

536 | 0mn 54s 1954ms | 2s 02ms | ` about 3,200 miles, it's one of ` |

537 | 0mn 56s 1956ms | 1s 01ms | ` the longest mountain chains in ` |

538 | 0mn 58s 1958ms | 2s 02ms | ` the world, but very little of it ` |

539 | 0mn 0s 200ms | 7s 07ms | ` is above sea level. ` |

540 | 0mn 7s 207ms | 3s 03ms | ` >> In 1963, Canadian geologist ` |

541 | 0mn 11s 2011ms | 1s 01ms | ` J. Tuzo wilson turned his ` |

542 | 0mn 12s 2012ms | 1s 01ms | ` attentions to the Hawaiian ` |

543 | 0mn 14s 2014ms | 3s 03ms | ` Islands. ` |

544 | 0mn 17s 2017ms | 1s 01ms | ` He was struck by the fact that ` |

545 | 0mn 19s 2019ms | 1s 01ms | ` both the Hawaiian Islands and ` |

546 | 0mn 20s 2020ms | 1s 01ms | ` Seamounts form a straight line ` |

547 | 0mn 22s 2022ms | 1s 01ms | ` that courses through the middle ` |

548 | 0mn 24s 2024ms | 3s 03ms | ` of the Pacific. ` |

549 | 0mn 27s 2027ms | 1s 01ms | ` Straight lines are incredibly ` |

550 | 0mn 29s 2029ms | 2s 02ms | ` rare in nature, they don't occur ` |

551 | 0mn 31s 2031ms | 3s 03ms | ` by accident, especially not a ` |

552 | 0mn 34s 2034ms | 3s 03ms | ` line over 3,000 miles long. ` |

553 | 0mn 37s 2037ms | 2s 02ms | ` Wilson believed that one single ` |

554 | 0mn 40s 2040ms | 1s 01ms | ` force must have created this ` |

555 | 0mn 41s 2041ms | 1s 01ms | ` vast chain of volcanic ` |

556 | 0mn 43s 2043ms | 5s 05ms | ` Islands and Seamounts. ` |

557 | 0mn 49s 2049ms | 2s 02ms | ` Wilson also made a very simple ` |

558 | 0mn 51s 2051ms | 1s 01ms | ` and yet incredibly astute ` |

559 | 0mn 52s 2052ms | 2s 02ms | ` deduction. The further the ` |

560 | 0mn 54s 2054ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands of Hawaii were from the ` |

561 | 0mn 56s 2056ms | 1s 01ms | ` Big Island, the greener they ` |

562 | 0mn 58s 2058ms | 3s 03ms | ` got. And for Wilson, greener ` |

563 | 0mn 1s 211ms | 3s 03ms | ` meant older. He noticed that the ` |

564 | 0mn 4s 214ms | 1s 01ms | ` landscape on the Big Island is ` |

565 | 0mn 6s 216ms | 2s 02ms | ` like a black desert, a barren ` |

566 | 0mn 8s 218ms | 1s 01ms | ` wilderness with only a few ` |

567 | 0mn 9s 219ms | 1s 01ms | ` seedlings peeping through the ` |

568 | 0mn 11s 2111ms | 3s 03ms | ` lava. Fresh lava flows regularly ` |

569 | 0mn 15s 2115ms | 1s 01ms | ` scorch the Earth, killing any ` |

570 | 0mn 16s 2116ms | 3s 03ms | ` plant life. ` |

571 | 0mn 20s 2120ms | 1s 01ms | ` But move north along the chain, ` |

572 | 0mn 22s 2122ms | 1s 01ms | ` and the islands become ` |

573 | 0mn 23s 2123ms | 3s 03ms | ` increasingly green. Wilson ` |

574 | 0mn 26s 2126ms | 1s 01ms | ` believed that on each successive ` |

575 | 0mn 28s 2128ms | 1s 01ms | ` Island, more time has passed ` |

576 | 0mn 30s 2130ms | 1s 01ms | ` since the last eruption, ` |

577 | 0mn 31s 2131ms | 4s 04ms | ` allowing more plants to grow. ` |

578 | 0mn 36s 2136ms | 1s 01ms | ` Two years later, using ` |

579 | 0mn 38s 2138ms | 1s 01ms | ` radiometric techniques, ` |

580 | 0mn 39s 2139ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists dated rock samples ` |

581 | 0mn 41s 2141ms | 1s 01ms | ` from each of the islands. ` |

582 | 0mn 43s 2143ms | 1s 01ms | ` Their results confirmed Wilson's ` |

583 | 0mn 44s 2144ms | 1s 01ms | ` hunch and proved that the ` |

584 | 0mn 46s 2146ms | 10s 010ms | ` Islands increased in age. ` |

585 | 0mn 56s 2156ms | 1s 01ms | ` Dr. Poland has been collecting ` |

586 | 0mn 57s 2157ms | 1s 01ms | ` some of these rock samples and ` |

587 | 0mn 59s 2159ms | 1s 01ms | ` has brought them to the Big ` |

588 | 0mn 0s 220ms | 3s 03ms | ` Island. ` |

589 | 0mn 3s 223ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> This rock right here is from ` |

590 | 0mn 4s 224ms | 0s 00ms | ` the lava flow that we're ` |

591 | 0mn 5s 225ms | 1s 01ms | ` standing on, this is one of the ` |

592 | 0mn 7s 227ms | 1s 01ms | ` youngest rocks on the island. ` |

593 | 0mn 8s 228ms | 1s 01ms | ` And, in fact, we could go and ` |

594 | 0mn 9s 229ms | 1s 01ms | ` pick up some lava that formed ` |

595 | 0mn 10s 2210ms | 5s 05ms | ` yesterday if it weren't too hot. ` |

596 | 0mn 16s 2216ms | 1s 01ms | ` If we move down to the middle of ` |

597 | 0mn 17s 2217ms | 1s 01ms | ` the chain, we get this rock here ` |

598 | 0mn 19s 2219ms | 1s 01ms | ` which is from Oahu, and this is ` |

599 | 0mn 21s 2221ms | 1s 01ms | ` about three and a half million ` |

600 | 0mn 22s 2222ms | 4s 04ms | ` years old. ` |

601 | 0mn 27s 2227ms | 1s 01ms | ` This rock here is from a lava ` |

602 | 0mn 28s 2228ms | 1s 01ms | ` flow on the island of Kauai, ` |

603 | 0mn 30s 2230ms | 1s 01ms | ` It's from the island that's the ` |

604 | 0mn 31s 2231ms | 1s 01ms | ` farthest away from where we are ` |

605 | 0mn 33s 2233ms | 1s 01ms | ` today on the Big Island. You ` |

606 | 0mn 35s 2235ms | 2s 02ms | ` notice how dull it is, that's ` |

607 | 0mn 37s 2237ms | 1s 01ms | ` because it is very old, it's ` |

608 | 0mn 38s 2238ms | 7s 07ms | ` about five million years old. ` |

609 | 0mn 45s 2245ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Wilson pulled together ` |

610 | 0mn 47s 2247ms | 1s 01ms | ` evidence from rock dating and ` |

611 | 0mn 48s 2248ms | 1s 01ms | ` the straight line forged by the ` |

612 | 0mn 50s 2250ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands and came up with a ` |

613 | 0mn 51s 2251ms | 2s 02ms | ` single theory. He proposed that ` |

614 | 0mn 54s 2254ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii was created by something ` |

615 | 0mn 56s 2256ms | 1s 01ms | ` called a hotspot, an ` |

616 | 0mn 58s 2258ms | 1s 01ms | ` exceptionally hot region beneath ` |

617 | 0mn 0s 230ms | 1s 01ms | ` the Earth's crust that was ` |

618 | 0mn 1s 231ms | 1s 01ms | ` concentrated under Hawaii's ` |

619 | 0mn 3s 233ms | 3s 03ms | ` Big Island. As the pacific plate ` |

620 | 0mn 6s 236ms | 1s 01ms | ` moved slowly over this hotspot, ` |

621 | 0mn 8s 238ms | 1s 01ms | ` the immense heat punched ` |

622 | 0mn 9s 239ms | 1s 01ms | ` through the crust to form a ` |

623 | 0mn 11s 2311ms | 3s 03ms | ` chain of volcanic islands. ` |

624 | 0mn 15s 2315ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> So this hot spot is a--a ` |

625 | 0mn 16s 2316ms | 1s 01ms | ` constant and stationary source ` |

626 | 0mn 18s 2318ms | 1s 01ms | ` of heat beneath the Earth's ` |

627 | 0mn 20s 2320ms | 1s 01ms | ` surface, it's like a blowtorch ` |

628 | 0mn 21s 2321ms | 1s 01ms | ` pointed up at the surface of the ` |

629 | 0mn 23s 2323ms | 1s 01ms | ` Earth. And as the Earth's ` |

630 | 0mn 24s 2324ms | 0s 00ms | ` surface moves over that ` |

631 | 0mn 25s 2325ms | 2s 02ms | ` blowtorch, it punches through, ` |

632 | 0mn 28s 2328ms | 1s 01ms | ` creating a chain of islands and ` |

633 | 0mn 29s 2329ms | 1s 01ms | ` undersea mountains, and that's ` |

634 | 0mn 30s 2330ms | 0s 00ms | ` what we're seeing in Hawaii ` |

635 | 0mn 31s 2331ms | 6s 06ms | ` today. ` |

636 | 0mn 38s 2338ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This theory was a geological ` |

637 | 0mn 39s 2339ms | 2s 02ms | ` masterstroke. It didn't just ` |

638 | 0mn 42s 2342ms | 2s 02ms | ` explain how Hawaii was created, ` |

639 | 0mn 44s 2344ms | 1s 01ms | ` it also confirmed one of the ` |

640 | 0mn 46s 2346ms | 1s 01ms | ` most radical theories of the ` |

641 | 0mn 47s 2347ms | 2s 02ms | ` 20th century, the theory of ` |

642 | 0mn 50s 2350ms | 4s 04ms | ` plate tectonics. ` |

643 | 0mn 54s 2354ms | 1s 01ms | ` Here, at last, was evidence that ` |

644 | 0mn 56s 2356ms | 1s 01ms | ` the vast lumbering plates that ` |

645 | 0mn 58s 2358ms | 4s 04ms | ` made up the Earth were moving. ` |

646 | 0mn 2s 242ms | 1s 01ms | ` Tuzo Wilson's hotspot theory ` |

647 | 0mn 4s 244ms | 1s 01ms | ` changed our understanding of our ` |

648 | 0mn 6s 246ms | 2s 02ms | ` planet forever, but it also left ` |

649 | 0mn 8s 248ms | 2s 02ms | ` behind a controversy that still ` |

650 | 0mn 10s 2410ms | 3s 03ms | ` rages to this day. ` |

651 | 0mn 14s 2414ms | 4s 04ms | ` How was the hotspot created? ` |

652 | 0mn 19s 2419ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> (Poland) Ever since scientists ` |

653 | 0mn 20s 2420ms | 1s 01ms | ` understood that volcanism in ` |

654 | 0mn 22s 2422ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii was driven by this ` |

655 | 0mn 23s 2423ms | 2s 02ms | ` hotspot, the question then ` |

656 | 0mn 25s 2425ms | 1s 01ms | ` became, well what drives the ` |

657 | 0mn 27s 2427ms | 1s 01ms | ` hotspot? What causes the ` |

658 | 0mn 28s 2428ms | 3s 03ms | ` hotspot? ` |

659 | 0mn 31s 2431ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> On the barren slopes of Mauna ` |

660 | 0mn 33s 2433ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kea on the Big Island, Mike ` |

661 | 0mn 35s 2435ms | 3s 03ms | ` Poland has found a clue. ` |

662 | 0mn 38s 2438ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> So what we're looking at here ` |

663 | 0mn 39s 2439ms | 2s 02ms | ` is what we call a xenolith, it's ` |

664 | 0mn 42s 2442ms | 1s 01ms | ` basically a foreign piece of ` |

665 | 0mn 43s 2443ms | 1s 01ms | ` rock that's trapped in this lava ` |

666 | 0mn 45s 2445ms | 1s 01ms | ` flow. ` |

667 | 0mn 46s 2446ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It's where this foreign piece ` |

668 | 0mn 47s 2447ms | 2s 02ms | ` of rock has come from that's ` |

669 | 0mn 49s 2449ms | 1s 01ms | ` truly startling. ` |

670 | 0mn 51s 2451ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The green mineral you're ` |

671 | 0mn 52s 2452ms | 1s 01ms | ` seeing in this xenolith here is ` |

672 | 0mn 54s 2454ms | 1s 01ms | ` a mineral called olivine, and it ` |

673 | 0mn 55s 2455ms | 1s 01ms | ` really indicates that--that this ` |

674 | 0mn 56s 2456ms | 1s 01ms | ` chunk here came from someplace ` |

675 | 0mn 58s 2458ms | 3s 03ms | ` very deep within the Earth. ` |

676 | 0mn 1s 251ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Olivine is usually found ` |

677 | 0mn 3s 253ms | 1s 01ms | ` hundreds of miles beneath the ` |

678 | 0mn 4s 254ms | 2s 02ms | ` surface. Its presence here is ` |

679 | 0mn 7s 257ms | 1s 01ms | ` good evidence that the hotspot ` |

680 | 0mn 9s 259ms | 1s 01ms | ` is powered by something deep ` |

681 | 0mn 11s 2511ms | 2s 02ms | ` within the Earth. And in the ` |

682 | 0mn 13s 2513ms | 2s 02ms | ` 1970s, american geologists ` |

683 | 0mn 16s 2516ms | 0s 00ms | ` finally came up with a ` |

684 | 0mn 17s 2517ms | 2s 02ms | ` groundbreaking theory. They ` |

685 | 0mn 20s 2520ms | 1s 01ms | ` theorized that below the hotspot ` |

686 | 0mn 21s 2521ms | 2s 02ms | ` lies a plume of hot rock, which ` |

687 | 0mn 24s 2524ms | 1s 01ms | ` rises up through the Earth's ` |

688 | 0mn 25s 2525ms | 3s 03ms | ` interior. Two or 300 miles below ` |

689 | 0mn 29s 2529ms | 1s 01ms | ` the surface, it starts to spread ` |

690 | 0mn 30s 2530ms | 3s 03ms | ` out, forming a huge dome. The ` |

691 | 0mn 34s 2534ms | 7s 07ms | ` very top of this is the hotspot. ` |

692 | 0mn 41s 2541ms | 1s 01ms | ` Scientists called this ` |

693 | 0mn 43s 2543ms | 4s 04ms | ` phenomenon a mantle plume. ` |

694 | 0mn 47s 2547ms | 1s 01ms | ` No one really knows how deep it ` |

695 | 0mn 49s 2549ms | 2s 02ms | ` goes, but some scientists have ` |

696 | 0mn 52s 2552ms | 1s 01ms | ` come to the extraordinary ` |

697 | 0mn 53s 2553ms | 1s 01ms | ` conclusion that it may stretch ` |

698 | 0mn 54s 2554ms | 1s 01ms | ` all the way down to the very ` |

699 | 0mn 56s 2556ms | 3s 03ms | ` core of our planet. ` |

700 | 0mn 59s 2559ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It is possible that the plume ` |

701 | 0mn 1s 261ms | 1s 01ms | ` extends all the way down to the ` |

702 | 0mn 2s 262ms | 1s 01ms | ` core-mantle boundary, and ` |

703 | 0mn 4s 264ms | 1s 01ms | ` frankly, that makes good sense ` |

704 | 0mn 5s 265ms | 1s 01ms | ` to me, if you look at the size ` |

705 | 0mn 7s 267ms | 7s 07ms | ` of the Hawaiian Island chain. ` |

706 | 0mn 15s 2615ms | 1s 01ms | ` It's a huge feature, it's been ` |

707 | 0mn 16s 2616ms | 1s 01ms | ` around for tens of millions of ` |

708 | 0mn 18s 2618ms | 1s 01ms | ` years. To me, that's not ` |

709 | 0mn 19s 2619ms | 1s 01ms | ` something that can be explained ` |

710 | 0mn 21s 2621ms | 1s 01ms | ` by something that's--that's just ` |

711 | 0mn 22s 2622ms | 1s 01ms | ` near the surface, I think it's ` |

712 | 0mn 23s 2623ms | 1s 01ms | ` got to be something quite deep ` |

713 | 0mn 25s 2625ms | 2s 02ms | ` within the Earth. ` |

714 | 0mn 27s 2627ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Suddenly, experts realized ` |

715 | 0mn 29s 2629ms | 1s 01ms | ` plumes were the answer to ` |

716 | 0mn 30s 2630ms | 1s 01ms | ` hundreds of geological ` |

717 | 0mn 32s 2632ms | 1s 01ms | ` mysteries, which had long ` |

718 | 0mn 33s 2633ms | 1s 01ms | ` puzzled science, such as the ` |

719 | 0mn 35s 2635ms | 1s 01ms | ` existence of Icelandic ` |

720 | 0mn 36s 2636ms | 4s 04ms | ` volcanoes, the Galapagos ` |

721 | 0mn 41s 2641ms | 3s 03ms | ` Islands, and the vast ` |

722 | 0mn 44s 2644ms | 3s 03ms | ` Yellowstone supervolcano. ` |

723 | 0mn 48s 2648ms | 1s 01ms | ` An investigation, begun in ` |

724 | 0mn 50s 2650ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii, transformed scientists' ` |

725 | 0mn 52s 2652ms | 1s 01ms | ` understanding, not just of the ` |

726 | 0mn 54s 2654ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island chain but of the entire ` |

727 | 0mn 56s 2656ms | 6s 06ms | ` Planet. ` |

728 | 0mn 2s 272ms | 1s 01ms | ` Rock dating and the unusually ` |

729 | 0mn 4s 274ms | 1s 01ms | ` straight alignment of the island ` |

730 | 0mn 5s 275ms | 1s 01ms | ` chain revealed that the Pacific ` |

731 | 0mn 7s 277ms | 1s 01ms | ` Plate is moving over a ` |

732 | 0mn 8s 278ms | 3s 03ms | ` stationary hotspot. Olivine rock ` |

733 | 0mn 12s 2712ms | 1s 01ms | ` erupted on Hawaii's Big Island ` |

734 | 0mn 14s 2714ms | 2s 02ms | ` shows this hotspot is powered ` |

735 | 0mn 16s 2716ms | 2s 02ms | ` by a mantle plume originating ` |

736 | 0mn 18s 2718ms | 1s 01ms | ` from the very bowels of the ` |

737 | 0mn 20s 2720ms | 2s 02ms | ` Earth. But while the Hawaiian ` |

738 | 0mn 22s 2722ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands have been created by ` |

739 | 0mn 23s 2723ms | 2s 02ms | ` this very hotspot, another, ` |

740 | 0mn 26s 2726ms | 1s 01ms | ` equally powerful, force is ` |

741 | 0mn 27s 2727ms | 3s 03ms | ` working to destroy them. ` |

742 | 0mn 35s 2735ms | 2s 02ms | ` In Hawaii, a strange force is at ` |

743 | 0mn 37s 2737ms | 3s 03ms | ` work. While the Big Island is ` |

744 | 0mn 41s 2741ms | 1s 01ms | ` growing by 11,000 square feet ` |

745 | 0mn 42s 2742ms | 1s 01ms | ` a year, the islands at the ` |

746 | 0mn 44s 2744ms | 1s 01ms | ` northern end of the chain are ` |

747 | 0mn 46s 2746ms | 3s 03ms | ` vanishing into the Pacific at a ` |

748 | 0mn 49s 2749ms | 2s 02ms | ` rate of 2,400 square feet a ` |

749 | 0mn 52s 2752ms | 4s 04ms | ` year. These islands are ` |

750 | 0mn 57s 2757ms | 3s 03ms | ` disappearing fast. ` |

751 | 0mn 0s 280ms | 1s 01ms | ` Geologists were curious about ` |

752 | 0mn 2s 282ms | 1s 01ms | ` what force could cause them to ` |

753 | 0mn 3s 283ms | 7s 07ms | ` vanish. ` |

754 | 0mn 11s 2811ms | 1s 01ms | ` They found their first clue in ` |

755 | 0mn 13s 2813ms | 3s 03ms | ` early scientific studies. 1950s ` |

756 | 0mn 16s 2816ms | 1s 01ms | ` underwater sea mapping produced ` |

757 | 0mn 18s 2818ms | 1s 01ms | ` a wealth of data, and these ` |

758 | 0mn 20s 2820ms | 1s 01ms | ` results revealed something ` |

759 | 0mn 21s 2821ms | 3s 03ms | ` completely unexpected. ` |

760 | 0mn 25s 2825ms | 1s 01ms | ` Heat and pressure from the ` |

761 | 0mn 26s 2826ms | 1s 01ms | ` hotspot had forced up the ` |

762 | 0mn 28s 2828ms | 2s 02ms | ` ocean floor, creating a bulge ` |

763 | 0mn 31s 2831ms | 3s 03ms | ` 750 miles long and 500 feet ` |

764 | 0mn 34s 2834ms | 4s 04ms | ` high. The chain is raised by the ` |

765 | 0mn 39s 2839ms | 1s 01ms | ` swell, but as the islands move ` |

766 | 0mn 40s 2840ms | 1s 01ms | ` away from the hotspot, they ` |

767 | 0mn 42s 2842ms | 2s 02ms | ` slide off the swollen crust, ` |

768 | 0mn 44s 2844ms | 4s 04ms | ` sinking further and further. ` |

769 | 0mn 48s 2848ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Eventually, as they move ` |

770 | 0mn 50s 2850ms | 1s 01ms | ` northward at about eight to ten ` |

771 | 0mn 52s 2852ms | 1s 01ms | ` centimeters, that's about three ` |

772 | 0mn 53s 2853ms | 2s 02ms | ` and a half inches, per year-- ` |

773 | 0mn 55s 2855ms | 2s 02ms | ` so in, say, another, um, one to ` |

774 | 0mn 58s 2858ms | 2s 02ms | ` two million years, this island ` |

775 | 0mn 0s 290ms | 2s 02ms | ` will probably be as much as ` |

776 | 0mn 2s 292ms | 2s 02ms | ` three to 4,000 feet lower, ` |

777 | 0mn 5s 295ms | 1s 01ms | ` probably have relatively little ` |

778 | 0mn 6s 296ms | 3s 03ms | ` freshwater on it and not be ` |

779 | 0mn 10s 2910ms | 3s 03ms | ` very inhabitable. ` |

780 | 0mn 13s 2913ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The hotspot that created the ` |

781 | 0mn 15s 2915ms | 5s 05ms | ` islands also seals their fate. ` |

782 | 0mn 20s 2920ms | 1s 01ms | ` But the islands aren't just ` |

783 | 0mn 21s 2921ms | 3s 03ms | ` sinking, they're shrinking too. ` |

784 | 0mn 24s 2924ms | 2s 02ms | ` Erosion is the culprit. It's ` |

785 | 0mn 27s 2927ms | 1s 01ms | ` slowly destroying the islands, ` |

786 | 0mn 28s 2928ms | 1s 01ms | ` and nowhere is this more ` |

787 | 0mn 30s 2930ms | 1s 01ms | ` apparent than on Kauai, the ` |

788 | 0mn 31s 2931ms | 4s 04ms | ` oldest island of Hawaii. ` |

789 | 0mn 35s 2935ms | 1s 01ms | ` Here, along the coastline, ` |

790 | 0mn 36s 2936ms | 1s 01ms | ` intense weathering may have ` |

791 | 0mn 38s 2938ms | 1s 01ms | ` produced some of the most ` |

792 | 0mn 39s 2939ms | 1s 01ms | ` breathtaking natural features in ` |

793 | 0mn 41s 2941ms | 1s 01ms | ` the world, but it is also ` |

794 | 0mn 43s 2943ms | 1s 01ms | ` evidence of the island's ` |

795 | 0mn 44s 2944ms | 3s 03ms | ` inherent flaw. And erosion isn't ` |

796 | 0mn 48s 2948ms | 2s 02ms | ` just taking place at the coast. ` |

797 | 0mn 50s 2950ms | 1s 01ms | ` It's happening all over the ` |

798 | 0mn 52s 2952ms | 3s 03ms | ` island. ` |

799 | 0mn 55s 2955ms | 2s 02ms | ` [birds crying] ` |

800 | 0mn 58s 2958ms | 2s 02ms | ` Waimea Canyon, Hawaii's grand ` |

801 | 0mn 0s 300ms | 2s 02ms | ` canyon, a ten-mile scar through ` |

802 | 0mn 3s 303ms | 2s 02ms | ` Kauai's green wilderness. ` |

803 | 0mn 5s 305ms | 1s 01ms | ` Over 3,000 feet deep, this ` |

804 | 0mn 7s 307ms | 1s 01ms | ` canyon is the most dramatic ` |

805 | 0mn 9s 309ms | 7s 07ms | ` example of erosion in Hawaii. ` |

806 | 0mn 17s 3017ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> If you look up to the east, ` |

807 | 0mn 18s 3018ms | 0s 00ms | ` you'll see one of the rainiest ` |

808 | 0mn 19s 3019ms | 1s 01ms | ` places in the world, Mount ` |

809 | 0mn 20s 3020ms | 4s 04ms | ` Waialeale. Rain flows from that ` |

810 | 0mn 25s 3025ms | 6s 06ms | ` Mountain down into the canyon. ` |

811 | 0mn 31s 3031ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Mount Waialeale receives ` |

812 | 0mn 32s 3032ms | 2s 02ms | ` over 400 inches of rain every ` |

813 | 0mn 35s 3035ms | 1s 01ms | ` year, which pours out over the ` |

814 | 0mn 36s 3036ms | 6s 06ms | ` island, carving out the canyon. ` |

815 | 0mn 43s 3043ms | 1s 01ms | ` But the islands are made of ` |

816 | 0mn 44s 3044ms | 1s 01ms | ` basalt lava, one of the hardest ` |

817 | 0mn 46s 3046ms | 3s 03ms | ` rocks on Earth. How could water ` |

818 | 0mn 50s 3050ms | 3s 03ms | ` alone be wearing them away? ` |

819 | 0mn 53s 3053ms | 1s 01ms | ` The answer lies in the canyon's ` |

820 | 0mn 55s 3055ms | 3s 03ms | ` spectacular red walls. ` |

821 | 0mn 58s 3058ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The reddish color is from ` |

822 | 0mn 59s 3059ms | 1s 01ms | ` the oxidation of the mineral ` |

823 | 0mn 1s 311ms | 2s 02ms | ` iron, which makes up about ` |

824 | 0mn 3s 313ms | 1s 01ms | ` ten to 12 percent of the lava ` |

825 | 0mn 5s 315ms | 3s 03ms | ` rock here. It's very similar to ` |

826 | 0mn 8s 318ms | 2s 02ms | ` the rust that forms on your car. ` |

827 | 0mn 11s 3111ms | 1s 01ms | ` So, literally, we're looking at ` |

828 | 0mn 12s 3112ms | 1s 01ms | ` a highly rusted landscape, if ` |

829 | 0mn 14s 3114ms | 1s 01ms | ` you will, which makes it very ` |

830 | 0mn 15s 3115ms | 3s 03ms | ` soft. So, in a sense, it's, uh, ` |

831 | 0mn 18s 3118ms | 2s 02ms | ` somewhat rotten. ` |

832 | 0mn 21s 3121ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Exposed to water, the high ` |

833 | 0mn 22s 3122ms | 1s 01ms | ` level of iron in this lava ` |

834 | 0mn 24s 3124ms | 1s 01ms | ` causes the rock to rust and ` |

835 | 0mn 26s 3126ms | 2s 02ms | ` crumble. It's the paradox of the ` |

836 | 0mn 28s 3128ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaiian Islands. They're made ` |

837 | 0mn 30s 3130ms | 1s 01ms | ` of volcanic basalt, one of ` |

838 | 0mn 32s 3132ms | 2s 02ms | ` nature's hardest rocks, but it's ` |

839 | 0mn 34s 3134ms | 2s 02ms | ` fatally flawed. ` |

840 | 0mn 36s 3136ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This, uh, rock, which, uh, ` |

841 | 0mn 38s 3138ms | 1s 01ms | ` initially was, uh, very dense, ` |

842 | 0mn 40s 3140ms | 1s 01ms | ` hard lava you could barely break ` |

843 | 0mn 41s 3141ms | 1s 01ms | ` with a hammer, we can now ` |

844 | 0mn 42s 3142ms | 1s 01ms | ` actually pull out pieces with ` |

845 | 0mn 44s 3144ms | 5s 05ms | ` our hand. ` |

846 | 0mn 49s 3149ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Combine this crumbling rock ` |

847 | 0mn 51s 3151ms | 0s 00ms | ` with some of the highest ` |

848 | 0mn 52s 3152ms | 2s 02ms | ` rainfall in the world, and the ` |

849 | 0mn 54s 3154ms | 2s 02ms | ` result is massive erosion over ` |

850 | 0mn 56s 3156ms | 2s 02ms | ` millions of years. But ` |

851 | 0mn 59s 3159ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists knew that erosion ` |

852 | 0mn 0s 320ms | 1s 01ms | ` alone couldn't be causing the ` |

853 | 0mn 2s 322ms | 7s 07ms | ` islands to disappear. ` |

854 | 0mn 9s 329ms | 1s 01ms | ` On the island of Molokai, they ` |

855 | 0mn 11s 3211ms | 1s 01ms | ` found evidence that vast tracts ` |

856 | 0mn 12s 3212ms | 1s 01ms | ` of land had disappeared, not ` |

857 | 0mn 14s 3214ms | 1s 01ms | ` over millions of years, but ` |

858 | 0mn 16s 3216ms | 3s 03ms | ` overnight. ` |

859 | 0mn 19s 3219ms | 1s 01ms | ` Satellite images revealed that ` |

860 | 0mn 21s 3221ms | 1s 01ms | ` Molokai is not like the other ` |

861 | 0mn 23s 3223ms | 2s 02ms | ` round lands of Hawaii. ` |

862 | 0mn 26s 3226ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Something strange happened to ` |

863 | 0mn 27s 3227ms | 1s 01ms | ` Molokai, it's quite obvious just ` |

864 | 0mn 28s 3228ms | 2s 02ms | ` by looking at any map. ` |

865 | 0mn 31s 3231ms | 2s 02ms | ` It's not a round volcano, part ` |

866 | 0mn 33s 3233ms | 1s 01ms | ` of it is missing. ` |

867 | 0mn 34s 3234ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It's a thin strip of land ` |

868 | 0mn 36s 3236ms | 2s 02ms | ` with sharp cliff edges, shorn ` |

869 | 0mn 38s 3238ms | 3s 03ms | ` away into steep faces. ` |

870 | 0mn 42s 3242ms | 2s 02ms | ` At 1,700 feet, these are the ` |

871 | 0mn 44s 3244ms | 2s 02ms | ` highest sea cliffs in the world. ` |

872 | 0mn 47s 3247ms | 1s 01ms | ` All the evidence pointed to a ` |

873 | 0mn 49s 3249ms | 2s 02ms | ` sudden cataclysmic event. ` |

874 | 0mn 51s 3251ms | 1s 01ms | ` Many theories were put forward, ` |

875 | 0mn 53s 3253ms | 1s 01ms | ` but it wasn't until the 1980s ` |

876 | 0mn 55s 3255ms | 1s 01ms | ` that geologists got the ` |

877 | 0mn 56s 3256ms | 1s 01ms | ` evidence they desperately ` |

878 | 0mn 57s 3257ms | 2s 02ms | ` needed. After the success of ` |

879 | 0mn 0s 330ms | 1s 01ms | ` earlier underwater mapping, the ` |

880 | 0mn 1s 331ms | 2s 02ms | ` U.S. Navy returned to Hawaii ` |

881 | 0mn 4s 334ms | 1s 01ms | ` with the world's most advanced ` |

882 | 0mn 5s 335ms | 2s 02ms | ` sonar system and surveyed the ` |

883 | 0mn 7s 337ms | 1s 01ms | ` surrounding waters in incredible ` |

884 | 0mn 9s 339ms | 2s 02ms | ` detail. They discovered the ` |

885 | 0mn 11s 3311ms | 1s 01ms | ` seabed on the island's north ` |

886 | 0mn 13s 3313ms | 1s 01ms | ` side was littered with gigantic ` |

887 | 0mn 15s 3315ms | 2s 02ms | ` underwater blocks of land, some ` |

888 | 0mn 17s 3317ms | 1s 01ms | ` larger than the island of ` |

889 | 0mn 18s 3318ms | 2s 02ms | ` Manhattan. Geologists took ` |

890 | 0mn 21s 3321ms | 1s 01ms | ` thousands of samples and ` |

891 | 0mn 22s 3322ms | 2s 02ms | ` measured the blocks. What they ` |

892 | 0mn 25s 3325ms | 3s 03ms | ` found was incredible. ` |

893 | 0mn 28s 3328ms | 1s 01ms | ` These blocks could be fitted ` |

894 | 0mn 29s 3329ms | 1s 01ms | ` back to the island's steep ` |

895 | 0mn 30s 3330ms | 1s 01ms | ` cliffs like a giant jigsaw ` |

896 | 0mn 32s 3332ms | 3s 03ms | ` puzzle. Finally, scientists had ` |

897 | 0mn 35s 3335ms | 1s 01ms | ` enough evidence to put together ` |

898 | 0mn 37s 3337ms | 3s 03ms | ` a picture of what had happened. ` |

899 | 0mn 40s 3340ms | 1s 01ms | ` Radiometric dating confirmed the ` |

900 | 0mn 42s 3342ms | 1s 01ms | ` age of the blocks and showed ` |

901 | 0mn 44s 3344ms | 1s 01ms | ` that they were the result of an ` |

902 | 0mn 45s 3345ms | 1s 01ms | ` event which had taken place over ` |

903 | 0mn 47s 3347ms | 2s 02ms | ` a million years ago. Geologists ` |

904 | 0mn 49s 3349ms | 1s 01ms | ` knew there could only be one ` |

905 | 0mn 51s 3351ms | 1s 01ms | ` explanation - a massive ` |

906 | 0mn 53s 3353ms | 2s 02ms | ` landslide. ` |

907 | 0mn 55s 3355ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> One and a half million years ` |

908 | 0mn 56s 3356ms | 2s 02ms | ` ago, um, there was a very bad ` |

909 | 0mn 59s 3359ms | 3s 03ms | ` day in the Hawaiian Islands, ` |

910 | 0mn 2s 342ms | 1s 01ms | ` the entire north slope of the ` |

911 | 0mn 3s 343ms | 1s 01ms | ` island slipped off into the ` |

912 | 0mn 5s 345ms | 3s 03ms | ` Ocean, a section 25 miles long ` |

913 | 0mn 8s 348ms | 1s 01ms | ` and perhaps as much as a mile ` |

914 | 0mn 9s 349ms | 2s 02ms | ` thick, and it did it all at ` |

915 | 0mn 12s 3412ms | 3s 03ms | ` once. ` |

916 | 0mn 15s 3415ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This huge section of the ` |

917 | 0mn 17s 3417ms | 1s 01ms | ` island crashed into the ocean, ` |

918 | 0mn 18s 3418ms | 1s 01ms | ` splitting into massive blocks ` |

919 | 0mn 20s 3420ms | 5s 05ms | ` weighing millions of tons. ` |

920 | 0mn 25s 3425ms | 1s 01ms | ` The force with which they ` |

921 | 0mn 27s 3427ms | 1s 01ms | ` crashed into the waves meant ` |

922 | 0mn 28s 3428ms | 1s 01ms | ` they didn't stop dead but ` |

923 | 0mn 30s 3430ms | 1s 01ms | ` continued to move along the ` |

924 | 0mn 32s 3432ms | 1s 01ms | ` ocean floor at an incredible ` |

925 | 0mn 33s 3433ms | 1s 01ms | ` speed. ` |

926 | 0mn 35s 3435ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It was sudden, it was ` |

927 | 0mn 36s 3436ms | 1s 01ms | ` dramatic, and we know that ` |

928 | 0mn 38s 3438ms | 1s 01ms | ` because of how far the blocks ` |

929 | 0mn 40s 3440ms | 2s 02ms | ` went, they--they went down into ` |

930 | 0mn 42s 3442ms | 1s 01ms | ` this trough around the Hawaiian ` |

931 | 0mn 43s 3443ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands and then up the other ` |

932 | 0mn 44s 3444ms | 3s 03ms | ` side and eventually stopped ` |

933 | 0mn 48s 3448ms | 2s 02ms | ` about 200 miles away. And for ` |

934 | 0mn 50s 3450ms | 1s 01ms | ` them to go that far means they ` |

935 | 0mn 51s 3451ms | 2s 02ms | ` had to be traveling about 150, ` |

936 | 0mn 54s 3454ms | 3s 03ms | ` 160 miles an hour, really fast, ` |

937 | 0mn 57s 3457ms | 1s 01ms | ` and of course, it's displacing ` |

938 | 0mn 59s 3459ms | 1s 01ms | ` water while it's doing that, so ` |

939 | 0mn 0s 350ms | 1s 01ms | ` you're creating for the Hawaiian ` |

940 | 0mn 2s 352ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands a huge tsunami, a ` |

941 | 0mn 4s 354ms | 1s 01ms | ` tsunami that would have--would ` |

942 | 0mn 5s 355ms | 1s 01ms | ` have reached to the top of the ` |

943 | 0mn 7s 357ms | 6s 06ms | ` cliffs behind me. ` |

944 | 0mn 13s 3513ms | 2s 02ms | ` >> A landslide on this scale and ` |

945 | 0mn 15s 3515ms | 1s 01ms | ` at this speed would have ` |

946 | 0mn 16s 3516ms | 1s 01ms | ` produced one of the most awesome ` |

947 | 0mn 18s 3518ms | 1s 01ms | ` and deadly waves ever seen on ` |

948 | 0mn 20s 3520ms | 2s 02ms | ` the planet. ` |

949 | 0mn 22s 3522ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The main event was over in ` |

950 | 0mn 23s 3523ms | 3s 03ms | ` only five minutes, and, uh, and ` |

951 | 0mn 27s 3527ms | 1s 01ms | ` I'm afraid that, if you saw ` |

952 | 0mn 28s 3528ms | 1s 01ms | ` that, it would be too late, ` |

953 | 0mn 29s 3529ms | 1s 01ms | ` because, yeah, you could run as ` |

954 | 0mn 31s 3531ms | 1s 01ms | ` hard as you like and--and you ` |

955 | 0mn 33s 3533ms | 0s 00ms | ` wouldn't get away from the ` |

956 | 0mn 34s 3534ms | 1s 01ms | ` subsequent--the subsequent ` |

957 | 0mn 35s 3535ms | 2s 02ms | ` tsunami. ` |

958 | 0mn 37s 3537ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> But what could have caused ` |

959 | 0mn 39s 3539ms | 3s 03ms | ` such catastrophic land failure? ` |

960 | 0mn 43s 3543ms | 1s 01ms | ` Geologists look to the youngest ` |

961 | 0mn 44s 3544ms | 1s 01ms | ` island, the Big Island, for ` |

962 | 0mn 46s 3546ms | 2s 02ms | ` answers. ` |

963 | 0mn 49s 3549ms | 1s 01ms | ` Here the island is still ` |

964 | 0mn 50s 3550ms | 1s 01ms | ` building, just as Molokai once ` |

965 | 0mn 52s 3552ms | 1s 01ms | ` did, and experts suspect they ` |

966 | 0mn 54s 3554ms | 1s 01ms | ` will find their answer in the ` |

967 | 0mn 55s 3555ms | 2s 02ms | ` island's foundations. ` |

968 | 0mn 58s 3558ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> As the new land builds out, ` |

969 | 0mn 59s 3559ms | 1s 01ms | ` it's building on sand that's ` |

970 | 0mn 1s 361ms | 1s 01ms | ` deposited in front of the lava ` |

971 | 0mn 2s 362ms | 2s 02ms | ` flows and so it's very unstable. ` |

972 | 0mn 5s 365ms | 1s 01ms | ` And every once in a while, this ` |

973 | 0mn 7s 367ms | 1s 01ms | ` material collapses, leaves the ` |

974 | 0mn 9s 369ms | 1s 01ms | ` lava unsupported, and it breaks ` |

975 | 0mn 10s 3610ms | 1s 01ms | ` and it slides down into the ` |

976 | 0mn 12s 3612ms | 1s 01ms | ` ocean. ` |

977 | 0mn 13s 3613ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> It was a disturbing ` |

978 | 0mn 14s 3614ms | 3s 03ms | ` discovery. All Hawaii's islands ` |

979 | 0mn 17s 3617ms | 1s 01ms | ` were built rapidly and entirely ` |

980 | 0mn 19s 3619ms | 2s 02ms | ` from lava. They are all based on ` |

981 | 0mn 21s 3621ms | 2s 02ms | ` the same weak foundations. ` |

982 | 0mn 24s 3624ms | 1s 01ms | ` And that means a landslide could ` |

983 | 0mn 26s 3626ms | 5s 05ms | ` strike anywhere. ` |

984 | 0mn 31s 3631ms | 1s 01ms | ` On the south coast of the Big ` |

985 | 0mn 32s 3632ms | 1s 01ms | ` Island, there's evidence that ` |

986 | 0mn 34s 3634ms | 1s 01ms | ` another major landslide could ` |

987 | 0mn 36s 3636ms | 3s 03ms | ` be about to occur. A huge tear ` |

988 | 0mn 39s 3639ms | 1s 01ms | ` in the Earth points to where a ` |

989 | 0mn 41s 3641ms | 3s 03ms | ` 4,700 square mile chunk of land ` |

990 | 0mn 44s 3644ms | 1s 01ms | ` is breaking away from the Big ` |

991 | 0mn 46s 3646ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island at a rate of four inches ` |

992 | 0mn 48s 3648ms | 3s 03ms | ` a year. For its size, this is ` |

993 | 0mn 52s 3652ms | 1s 01ms | ` the fastest moving tract of land ` |

994 | 0mn 54s 3654ms | 2s 02ms | ` on the planet. Geologists have ` |

995 | 0mn 56s 3656ms | 1s 01ms | ` calculated that if it were to ` |

996 | 0mn 58s 3658ms | 1s 01ms | ` fall into the ocean, it could ` |

997 | 0mn 59s 3659ms | 1s 01ms | ` trigger an Earthquake up to ` |

998 | 0mn 1s 371ms | 2s 02ms | ` magnitude seven and unleash a ` |

999 | 0mn 3s 373ms | 2s 02ms | ` colossal tsunami. All the cities ` |

1000 | 0mn 6s 376ms | 2s 02ms | ` of Hawaii would be swept away as ` |

1001 | 0mn 8s 378ms | 1s 01ms | ` a mammoth wave races towards the ` |

1002 | 0mn 10s 3710ms | 7s 07ms | ` California coast. ` |

1003 | 0mn 17s 3717ms | 1s 01ms | ` Investigators have discovered ` |

1004 | 0mn 19s 3719ms | 3s 03ms | ` why Hawaii is disappearing. ` |

1005 | 0mn 22s 3722ms | 1s 01ms | ` Sonar maps reveal the islands ` |

1006 | 0mn 24s 3724ms | 1s 01ms | ` are sliding off a swollen ` |

1007 | 0mn 26s 3726ms | 2s 02ms | ` section of the Earth's crust. ` |

1008 | 0mn 28s 3728ms | 1s 01ms | ` Kauai's crumbling landscape ` |

1009 | 0mn 30s 3730ms | 1s 01ms | ` reveals an inherent flaw in the ` |

1010 | 0mn 32s 3732ms | 1s 01ms | ` islands. They are made of the ` |

1011 | 0mn 33s 3733ms | 1s 01ms | ` hardest rock on Earth, but ` |

1012 | 0mn 35s 3735ms | 1s 01ms | ` exposed to water, they rapidly ` |

1013 | 0mn 36s 3736ms | 2s 02ms | ` break down. And Molokai's ` |

1014 | 0mn 39s 3739ms | 1s 01ms | ` dramatic cliffs, shorn away ` |

1015 | 0mn 40s 3740ms | 1s 01ms | ` overnight, are evidence of ` |

1016 | 0mn 42s 3742ms | 3s 03ms | ` catastrophic landslides. ` |

1017 | 0mn 46s 3746ms | 1s 01ms | ` Sinking, eroding and crashing ` |

1018 | 0mn 48s 3748ms | 1s 01ms | ` into the Pacific, eventually, ` |

1019 | 0mn 49s 3749ms | 1s 01ms | ` even the Big Island will be ` |

1020 | 0mn 51s 3751ms | 1s 01ms | ` just another underwater mountain ` |

1021 | 0mn 53s 3753ms | 2s 02ms | ` in the long chain hidden beneath ` |

1022 | 0mn 55s 3755ms | 2s 02ms | ` the waves. But the story of ` |

1023 | 0mn 58s 3758ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii is far from over. ` |

1024 | 0mn 0s 380ms | 1s 01ms | ` Rumblings from under the sea ` |

1025 | 0mn 1s 381ms | 1s 01ms | ` tell scientists a new monster ` |

1026 | 0mn 3s 383ms | 2s 02ms | ` may be rising from the waves. ` |

1027 | 0mn 6s 386ms | 1s 01ms | ` Now they must venture into one ` |

1028 | 0mn 8s 388ms | 1s 01ms | ` of the most hostile environments ` |

1029 | 0mn 10s 3810ms | 2s 02ms | ` on Earth, where fire meets ` |

1030 | 0mn 12s 3812ms | 1s 01ms | ` water. ` |

1031 | 0mn 18s 3818ms | 1s 01ms | ` The story of Hawaii is an ` |

1032 | 0mn 20s 3820ms | 1s 01ms | ` incredible tale of giant ` |

1033 | 0mn 21s 3821ms | 3s 03ms | ` volcanoes, unimaginable ` |

1034 | 0mn 25s 3825ms | 2s 02ms | ` catastrophe and vanishing ` |

1035 | 0mn 28s 3828ms | 2s 02ms | ` islands, but it doesn't end ` |

1036 | 0mn 30s 3830ms | 2s 02ms | ` here. Because, only 20 miles off ` |

1037 | 0mn 33s 3833ms | 1s 01ms | ` the Big Island's beaches, ` |

1038 | 0mn 35s 3835ms | 2s 02ms | ` something strange is stirring in ` |

1039 | 0mn 37s 3837ms | 4s 04ms | ` the depths. ` |

1040 | 0mn 42s 3842ms | 2s 02ms | ` In the 1950s, sea floor surveys ` |

1041 | 0mn 44s 3844ms | 1s 01ms | ` revealed that an underwater ` |

1042 | 0mn 46s 3846ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcano sat right on the ` |

1043 | 0mn 47s 3847ms | 2s 02ms | ` flanks of the Big Island. ` |

1044 | 0mn 50s 3850ms | 1s 01ms | ` Geologists were intrigued by ` |

1045 | 0mn 51s 3851ms | 1s 01ms | ` this giant seamount rising up ` |

1046 | 0mn 53s 3853ms | 2s 02ms | ` two miles from the ocean floor, ` |

1047 | 0mn 56s 3856ms | 2s 02ms | ` and named it Loihi. Scientists ` |

1048 | 0mn 59s 3859ms | 1s 01ms | ` were desperate to learn more. ` |

1049 | 0mn 0s 390ms | 1s 01ms | ` but it wasn't until 40 years ` |

1050 | 0mn 2s 392ms | 1s 01ms | ` later, when the technology ` |

1051 | 0mn 3s 393ms | 1s 01ms | ` became available, that they ` |

1052 | 0mn 4s 394ms | 1s 01ms | ` were able to dive down and ` |

1053 | 0mn 6s 396ms | 2s 02ms | ` investigate the seamount. ` |

1054 | 0mn 8s 398ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> (man) Scientists were very ` |

1055 | 0mn 9s 399ms | 0s 00ms | ` interested to go down and ` |

1056 | 0mn 10s 3910ms | 1s 01ms | ` actually see what the situation ` |

1057 | 0mn 12s 3912ms | 2s 02ms | ` was, so they took the research ` |

1058 | 0mn 14s 3914ms | 1s 01ms | ` submarine Alvin, which is the ` |

1059 | 0mn 16s 3916ms | 1s 01ms | ` very famous three-person sub ` |

1060 | 0mn 17s 3917ms | 2s 02ms | ` that found the Titanic, and they ` |

1061 | 0mn 20s 3920ms | 1s 01ms | ` went down to the seamount and ` |

1062 | 0mn 21s 3921ms | 3s 03ms | ` found that there was a huge ` |

1063 | 0mn 25s 3925ms | 1s 01ms | ` pile of volcanic rocks that were ` |

1064 | 0mn 26s 3926ms | 3s 03ms | ` all freshly broken. And here's a ` |

1065 | 0mn 29s 3929ms | 1s 01ms | ` sample, this is a very heavy ` |

1066 | 0mn 30s 3930ms | 1s 01ms | ` rock, and it's a top of a pillow ` |

1067 | 0mn 32s 3932ms | 2s 02ms | ` lava. ` |

1068 | 0mn 35s 3935ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Pillow lava was evidence of a ` |

1069 | 0mn 36s 3936ms | 8s 08ms | ` very recent eruption. ` |

1070 | 0mn 44s 3944ms | 1s 01ms | ` Scientists had believed Loihi to ` |

1071 | 0mn 46s 3946ms | 2s 02ms | ` be an ancient volcano, extinct ` |

1072 | 0mn 48s 3948ms | 2s 02ms | ` for thousands of years. But this ` |

1073 | 0mn 51s 3951ms | 1s 01ms | ` discovery called for some ` |

1074 | 0mn 52s 3952ms | 3s 03ms | ` radical rethinking. Could Loihi ` |

1075 | 0mn 56s 3956ms | 3s 03ms | ` be alive and erupting? Experts ` |

1076 | 0mn 0s 400ms | 1s 01ms | ` struggled for 11 years to find ` |

1077 | 0mn 2s 402ms | 2s 02ms | ` indisputable proof, mapping the ` |

1078 | 0mn 4s 404ms | 1s 01ms | ` seamount extensively and taking ` |

1079 | 0mn 5s 405ms | 2s 02ms | ` thounds of samples, until, ` |

1080 | 0mn 8s 408ms | 1s 01ms | ` finally, they came across the ` |

1081 | 0mn 10s 4010ms | 1s 01ms | ` piece of evidence they had been ` |

1082 | 0mn 11s 4011ms | 1s 01ms | ` searching for. ` |

1083 | 0mn 13s 4013ms | 2s 02ms | ` >> Now it wasn't until 1996 ` |

1084 | 0mn 15s 4015ms | 1s 01ms | ` that, really, the smoking gun ` |

1085 | 0mn 16s 4016ms | 4s 04ms | ` was discovered. ` |

1086 | 0mn 21s 4021ms | 1s 01ms | ` In October that year, there was ` |

1087 | 0mn 22s 4022ms | 2s 02ms | ` a huge number of seismic events ` |

1088 | 0mn 25s 4025ms | 1s 01ms | ` occurring that the people at the ` |

1089 | 0mn 27s 4027ms | 1s 01ms | ` volcano observatory discovered, ` |

1090 | 0mn 29s 4029ms | 1s 01ms | ` but they quickly realized that ` |

1091 | 0mn 30s 4030ms | 1s 01ms | ` the source of the seismic ` |

1092 | 0mn 31s 4031ms | 1s 01ms | ` activity was not on the island ` |

1093 | 0mn 32s 4032ms | 2s 02ms | ` here, it was offshore. They did ` |

1094 | 0mn 35s 4035ms | 1s 01ms | ` the best estimates they could ` |

1095 | 0mn 36s 4036ms | 1s 01ms | ` and it all pointed to this ` |

1096 | 0mn 38s 4038ms | 1s 01ms | ` seamount off the south ` |

1097 | 0mn 39s 4039ms | 1s 01ms | ` end of the Big Island. ` |

1098 | 0mn 41s 4041ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> This swarm of earthquakes ` |

1099 | 0mn 42s 4042ms | 1s 01ms | ` coming from Loihi were the ` |

1100 | 0mn 44s 4044ms | 1s 01ms | ` largest number ever recorded ` |

1101 | 0mn 46s 4046ms | 2s 02ms | ` from any Hawaiian volcano. ` |

1102 | 0mn 49s 4049ms | 1s 01ms | ` Scientists knew they were on the ` |

1103 | 0mn 51s 4051ms | 1s 01ms | ` verge of an incredible ` |

1104 | 0mn 52s 4052ms | 2s 02ms | ` discovery. Desperate to witness ` |

1105 | 0mn 54s 4054ms | 1s 01ms | ` the action as it happened, ` |

1106 | 0mn 55s 4055ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists rushed to the heart ` |

1107 | 0mn 57s 4057ms | 1s 01ms | ` of the activity. ` |

1108 | 0mn 59s 4059ms | 0s 00ms | ` >> The trick was to get out ` |

1109 | 0mn 0s 410ms | 1s 01ms | ` there while the eruption was ` |

1110 | 0mn 1s 411ms | 6s 06ms | ` occurring. ` |

1111 | 0mn 7s 417ms | 1s 01ms | ` So we went out there, there was ` |

1112 | 0mn 9s 419ms | 1s 01ms | ` a tremendous amount of seismic ` |

1113 | 0mn 11s 4111ms | 1s 01ms | ` activity. From the ship you ` |

1114 | 0mn 12s 4112ms | 1s 01ms | ` could actually hear the noise of ` |

1115 | 0mn 13s 4113ms | 2s 02ms | ` the earthquake. ` |

1116 | 0mn 16s 4116ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Venturing into the unknown, a ` |

1117 | 0mn 18s 4118ms | 1s 01ms | ` team from the University of ` |

1118 | 0mn 20s 4120ms | 1s 01ms | ` Hawaii dived 3,000 feet down ` |

1119 | 0mn 22s 4122ms | 1s 01ms | ` into this dangerous and ` |

1120 | 0mn 23s 4123ms | 3s 03ms | ` unpredictable environment. ` |

1121 | 0mn 26s 4126ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Everywhere you could see were ` |

1122 | 0mn 28s 4128ms | 4s 04ms | ` mounds of broken up rock. ` |

1123 | 0mn 32s 4132ms | 2s 02ms | ` In this murky water was this ` |

1124 | 0mn 34s 4134ms | 2s 02ms | ` precipice. The top of the ` |

1125 | 0mn 37s 4137ms | 2s 02ms | ` Seamount had suddenly collapsed ` |

1126 | 0mn 40s 4140ms | 1s 01ms | ` to create this pit crater that ` |

1127 | 0mn 41s 4141ms | 1s 01ms | ` was hundreds of feet across and ` |

1128 | 0mn 43s 4143ms | 1s 01ms | ` hundreds of feet deep, and this ` |

1129 | 0mn 45s 4145ms | 2s 02ms | ` was the first evidence for ` |

1130 | 0mn 47s 4147ms | 3s 03ms | ` really active volcanic activity. ` |

1131 | 0mn 50s 4150ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Experts had just missed one ` |

1132 | 0mn 52s 4152ms | 1s 01ms | ` of the most violent eruptions ` |

1133 | 0mn 54s 4154ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii had ever seen, but, as ` |

1134 | 0mn 56s 4156ms | 2s 02ms | ` the dust settled, they were able ` |

1135 | 0mn 58s 4158ms | 3s 03ms | ` to survey the aftermath. ` |

1136 | 0mn 2s 422ms | 1s 01ms | ` Lava had poured out of the ` |

1137 | 0mn 3s 423ms | 2s 02ms | ` volcano, draining the summit and ` |

1138 | 0mn 5s 425ms | 7s 07ms | ` causing it to collapse. ` |

1139 | 0mn 13s 4213ms | 1s 01ms | ` The team finally had proof that ` |

1140 | 0mn 15s 4215ms | 2s 02ms | ` Loihi was an active volcano, ` |

1141 | 0mn 17s 4217ms | 1s 01ms | ` which will continue to erupt and ` |

1142 | 0mn 19s 4219ms | 1s 01ms | ` grow until it forms a new ` |

1143 | 0mn 21s 4221ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island, the next in the Hawaiian ` |

1144 | 0mn 23s 4223ms | 4s 04ms | ` Chain. ` |

1145 | 0mn 28s 4228ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> The assumption was there had ` |

1146 | 0mn 29s 4229ms | 1s 01ms | ` to be another volcano coming up ` |

1147 | 0mn 31s 4231ms | 2s 02ms | ` one of these days. No one ` |

1148 | 0mn 33s 4233ms | 1s 01ms | ` knew whether that was gonna ` |

1149 | 0mn 35s 4235ms | 1s 01ms | ` happen in our lifetime or not, ` |

1150 | 0mn 36s 4236ms | 2s 02ms | ` but it's very rewarding for the ` |

1151 | 0mn 39s 4239ms | 1s 01ms | ` scientists to realize that now ` |

1152 | 0mn 40s 4240ms | 1s 01ms | ` the next volcano in the sequence ` |

1153 | 0mn 42s 4242ms | 2s 02ms | ` has been discovered - Loihi is ` |

1154 | 0mn 44s 4244ms | 2s 02ms | ` apparently it. ` |

1155 | 0mn 47s 4247ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> As lava continues to spew ` |

1156 | 0mn 49s 4249ms | 2s 02ms | ` from its submerged summit, Loihi ` |

1157 | 0mn 51s 4251ms | 1s 01ms | ` will build until it rises out of ` |

1158 | 0mn 53s 4253ms | 2s 02ms | ` the Pacific. The Pacific plate ` |

1159 | 0mn 56s 4256ms | 1s 01ms | ` will shift, carrying the Big ` |

1160 | 0mn 57s 4257ms | 1s 01ms | ` Island off the hotspot, and ` |

1161 | 0mn 59s 4259ms | 1s 01ms | ` Loihi will take its place at the ` |

1162 | 0mn 1s 431ms | 4s 04ms | ` head of the Hawaiian chain. ` |

1163 | 0mn 5s 435ms | 1s 01ms | ` Experts had studied the ancient ` |

1164 | 0mn 7s 437ms | 1s 01ms | ` Islands of Hawaii for hundreds ` |

1165 | 0mn 9s 439ms | 1s 01ms | ` of years, theorizing about how ` |

1166 | 0mn 11s 4311ms | 2s 02ms | ` they were created. But they ` |

1167 | 0mn 13s 4313ms | 1s 01ms | ` never imagined they would have ` |

1168 | 0mn 14s 4314ms | 1s 01ms | ` the opportunity to witness it ` |

1169 | 0mn 16s 4316ms | 3s 03ms | ` for themselves. ` |

1170 | 0mn 20s 4320ms | 2s 02ms | ` >> Loihi provides us with a real ` |

1171 | 0mn 23s 4323ms | 2s 02ms | ` unique laboratory, it gives us a ` |

1172 | 0mn 25s 4325ms | 1s 01ms | ` window back into the past. ` |

1173 | 0mn 26s 4326ms | 1s 01ms | ` This is our one chance to see ` |

1174 | 0mn 28s 4328ms | 1s 01ms | ` how it worked before the islands ` |

1175 | 0mn 30s 4330ms | 5s 05ms | ` reached the surface. ` |

1176 | 0mn 36s 4336ms | 1s 01ms | ` >> Reviewing all the evidence, ` |

1177 | 0mn 37s 4337ms | 2s 02ms | ` investigators finally understand ` |

1178 | 0mn 39s 4339ms | 1s 01ms | ` how the Hawaiian chain was ` |

1179 | 0mn 41s 4341ms | 3s 03ms | ` created. Gravity readings taken ` |

1180 | 0mn 44s 4344ms | 1s 01ms | ` in the 1930s show that the Big ` |

1181 | 0mn 46s 4346ms | 2s 02ms | ` Island is 140 times bigger than ` |

1182 | 0mn 49s 4349ms | 1s 01ms | ` Mount Everest. Further ` |

1183 | 0mn 50s 4350ms | 1s 01ms | ` investigation reveals that it is ` |

1184 | 0mn 52s 4352ms | 2s 02ms | ` made entirely from basalt lava ` |

1185 | 0mn 54s 4354ms | 3s 03ms | ` from five volcanoes. Rocks ` |

1186 | 0mn 58s 4358ms | 1s 01ms | ` created deep underground are ` |

1187 | 0mn 0s 440ms | 1s 01ms | ` found within the lava and show ` |

1188 | 0mn 2s 442ms | 1s 01ms | ` the island's volcanoes are ` |

1189 | 0mn 3s 443ms | 1s 01ms | ` fueled by something from deep ` |

1190 | 0mn 5s 445ms | 1s 01ms | ` within the Earth, a mantle ` |

1191 | 0mn 7s 447ms | 3s 03ms | ` plume. But high levels of iron ` |

1192 | 0mn 10s 4410ms | 2s 02ms | ` in Hawaii's basalt lava cause ` |

1193 | 0mn 12s 4412ms | 2s 02ms | ` the islands to crumble. And the ` |

1194 | 0mn 14s 4414ms | 1s 01ms | ` steep cliffs of Molokai are ` |

1195 | 0mn 16s 4416ms | 4s 04ms | ` evidence of mega landslides. ` |

1196 | 0mn 20s 4420ms | 2s 02ms | ` Underwater lava is proof that a ` |

1197 | 0mn 22s 4422ms | 2s 02ms | ` new volcano is stirring - the ` |

1198 | 0mn 24s 4424ms | 1s 01ms | ` next island in the chain that ` |

1199 | 0mn 26s 4426ms | 1s 01ms | ` will eventually emerge from ` |

1200 | 0mn 27s 4427ms | 4s 04ms | ` beneath the waves. ` |

1201 | 0mn 32s 4432ms | 2s 02ms | ` Hawaii's dramatic cycle of birth ` |

1202 | 0mn 34s 4434ms | 1s 01ms | ` and death is more than just a ` |

1203 | 0mn 36s 4436ms | 1s 01ms | ` geological wonder. It's ` |

1204 | 0mn 38s 4438ms | 1s 01ms | ` transformed geologists' ` |

1205 | 0mn 40s 4440ms | 1s 01ms | ` understanding of the entire ` |

1206 | 0mn 41s 4441ms | 1s 01ms | ` planet. ` |

1207 | 0mn 43s 4443ms | 3s 03ms | ` On Hawaii we can see for ourselves ` |

1208 | 0mn 47s 4447ms | 2s 02ms | ` how the Earth is made. ` |

1209 | 0mn 49s 4449ms | 3s 03ms | ```
-- Sync, corrected by <font color="#00ff00">elderman</font> --
-- for <font color="#00ffff">addic7ed.com</font> --
``` |